Educated at universities in Tanzania and Scotland; PhD in Economics, Glasgow University. Formerly, career in banking, international trade and development and government service. 1997-2005, Minister of Finance and Economic Planning of Rwanda; oversaw successful reconstruction of the country at the end of the civil war; initiated and implemented major economic reforms and introduced new systems of structural, monetary and fiscal governance, laying special emphasis on the independence of Rwanda's central bank, leading to revival of Rwanda's economy and sustained economic growth. 2005, elected President, African Development Bank Group (AfDB); 2010, re-elected; has presided over a major redirection in its 10-year strategy which focuses on inclusive growth and transition to green growth for development and poverty reduction in Africa. AfDB has placed increased emphasis on the private sector, governance and accountability, skills and technology, fragile states, and on the importance of major infrastructure developments.