1982 and 1988, MA and PhD in Economics, Graduate School, Chinese Academy of Social Sciences (CASS). One of China's most prominent advocates of reform. 1985-87, Visiting Fellow, National Bureau of Economic Research and Harvard University, US; 1992-93, Chief Editor, Jingji Yianjiu, a monthly economic research journal; 1992-95, Deputy Director and Senior Research Fellow, Institute of Economics, Chinese Academy of Social Sciences (CASS); since 1990, Professor of Economics, Peking University and Graduate School, CASS. Director, National Economic Research Institute, China. Secretary-General, China Reform Foundation. 2006-10, Member, Monetary Policy Committee, People's Bank of China. Consultant to departments of the Chinese central government and World Bank, ADB, UNDP, ESCAP and OECD.