Graduate, ESSEC business school, Institut d'études politiques, Paris, and ENA (National School of Administration). Former public auditor, Cour des comptes (Government Audit Office). 2001-07, in addition to other duties, external auditor to the United Nations, Iraq, New York and Geneva. 2007, appointed rapporteur to the Committee on Professional Conduct in the State Civil Service (2008-09). May 2012, named Minister Delegate with responsibility for Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises, Innovation and the Digital Economy.