1978, degree in Economics, University of Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Formerly, Representative, Bagamoyo Parliamentary Constituency. 1990-94, Minister, Water, Energy and Minerals; 1994-95, Finance Minister; 1995-2005, Foreign Minister. Currently, President, United Republic of Tanzania. Since 1975, with Chama Cha Mapinduzi party: Member; 1982, Member, National Executive Committee; 1997, Member, Central Committee.