Graduate: Ecole des Mines; University of Paris, Institut d'Etudes Politiques de Paris; Ecole Nationale d'Administration. 1978-81, Adviser to the French President (Industry and Research). 1981-86, Deputy Director of the Treasury. 1985-93, Chairman, Paris Club. 1986-87, Chief of Staff of the Minister of Finance. Since 1987, Director of the Treasury, France. 1993-2003, Governor of the Bank of France. 1994-98, Member of the Council, European Monetary Institute. 1993, Alternate Governor, International Monetary Fund. 1998-2003, Member of the Governing Council, European Central Bank. November 2003-October 2011, President, European Central Bank. 2003-11, Member of the Board, Bank for International Settlements. Since November 2011, Chairman, Group of Thirty. Recipient of awards.