1969, Bachelor's in Law, University of Bordeaux; 1971, Master's in Private Law, University of Toulouse; Master's in Political Affairs, Centre for Advanced Studies on Africa and Asia, Paris. Formerly, with the United Nations for 18 years, holding senior positions in counterterrorism and criminal justice, United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (1993-2008). Also served as Head of the Secretariat Unit supporting the negotiations on the United Nations Convention on Transnational Organized Crime, Special Adviser of the Undersecretary-General for Political Affairs and, 2009-10, Chairman, Counter-Terrorism Implementation Task Force. Served for 22 years in the French criminal justice system and Government as Judge, Assistant Prosecutor-General, Chief Prosecutor and Head of the National Service for the Inspection of Penitentiary Services. From December 2010 until appointment to CTED, Judge, Criminal Chamber of France's Supreme Judicial Court (Cour de Cassation).