BA, MA and PhD, Stanford University. Formerly: US Assistant Secretary of State for African Affairs, Special Assistant to the President, and Senior Director for African Affairs, National Security Council; first woman US Ambassador to South Africa. Currently, Distinguished Public Service Professor, Carnegie Mellon University; directs the Center for International Policy and Innovation (CIPI). Adjunct Senior Fellow for Africa Studies, Council on Foreign Relations; served as a political-military planner for the Joint Chiefs of Staff at the Pentagon. Managing Partner, Africa Exchange Holdings (AFEX), an initiative to build Africa's equity and commodity markets.