PhD in Economics, Stanford University. 1974-84, with the International Monetary Fund (IMF), including: 1978-80, Resident Representative, Chile. With Salomon Brothers: 1984-97, Director, European Research Group, then Chief Economist. With JPMorgan Chase: 1997-2006, Chief Economist and Director of Research, Chase; then Chief Economist, then Vice-Chairman, JP Morgan Investment Bank. 2006-11, First Deputy Managing Director, IMF. Currently, Distinguished Visiting Scholar, School of Advanced International Studies (SAIS), Johns Hopkins University. Co-Chair, Aspen Institute Program on the World Economy. Non-Executive Director, HSBC Holdings. Global Policy Adviser, Anderson Global Macro. Member: Board of Directors, National Bureau of Economic Research and Center for Global Development; Advisory Board, Stanford Institute for Economic Policy Research; Council on Foreign Relations.