Thirty-three years with the Government of Canada, including: Clerk of the Privy Council; Secretary to the Cabinet; Head of the Public Service of Canada; Deputy Minister of Finance and of Industry. Executive Director, IMF. Currently, Vice-Chairman, BMO Financial Group. Former Chair, University of Waterloo, Member, OECD’s Expert Group (Innovation & Digitization), Director, Asia Pacific Foundation, CN Railway, Chair of Board SNC-Lavalin. Masters in Economics University of Manchester, doctorate in Economics McMaster University. Awards: Officer, Order of Canada; Member of the Queen's Privy Council for Canada; ten honorary degrees.