2007-10 and 2013, Prime Minister of Australia; led Australia's response during the Global Financial Crisis where Australia was the only major advanced economy not to go into recession; 2008, delivered the formal National Apology to Indigenous Australians as first parliamentary act; ratified the Kyoto Protocol and introduced an Australian Mandatory Renewable Energy target of 20% by 2020. 2010-12, Foreign Minister of Australia. As Prime Minister and Foreign Minister, also oversaw the doubling of Australian foreign aid over five years, making Australia the seventh largest aid donor in the world. Recognized as one of the founders of the G20 as the premier global economic decision-making institution. Co-Author, Resilient People, Resilient Planet, the report of the United Nations Secretary-General's High Level Panel on Global Sustainability (2012). Deeply engaged in the questions of Australia's strategic and economic future in Asia, aboriginal reconciliation, the teaching of Asian languages, homelessness and organ donation.