Graduate, Ecole Normale Supérieure and National School of Public Administration; "Agrégation" in French Language and Literature; degree in Higher Teaching. 1977-95 and since March 2000, Deputy Mayor of Grand-Quevilly; 1978, elected Deputy and re-elected in 1981, 1986, 1988, 1993 and 1997. 1974, joined the Socialist Party; Principal Private Secretary of François Mitterrand; 1981-83, Minister in charge of the Budget to the Minister of the Economy and Finance; 1983-84, Minister of Industry and Research; 1984-86, Prime Minister; 1988-92 and 1997-2000, President, National Assembly; 1989-92, Member of the European Parliament; 1992-93, First Secretary, Socialist Party; 1992-95, Member, Regional Council of Haute-Normandie; 1989-95, President, SIVOM (association of communities), Rouen; 1995-97, President, Socialist parliamentary group; 1995-2000, President, urban area district of Rouen and Mayor of Grand-Quevilly; since 1979, Member, Steering Committee, Socialist Party. Since 2012, current position. Author of six books and specialist in economic and financial issues, European affairs, international relations as well as paintings and sculpture. Most recent book: Le Cabinet des Douze - Regards sur des tableaux qui font la France (2010).