1982, degree in Economics, Beijing Institute of Commerce. 1982-95: Division Chief, Commissioner, Chief Economist and Vice-Director, Beijing Development Planning Commission; Deputy Secretary-General, Beijing Capital Planning and Construction Commission. Vice-Chairman: Beijing Enterprise Confederation; Beijing Entrepreneurs' Association. Chairman, New Capital International Investment. Chairman of the Board: Beijing Capital Land; Beijing Capital. Executive Director: CEC CEDA; National Council of Chinese Entrepreneurs. Visiting Professor and Postgraduate Supervisor: Tsinghua University; Chinese Academy of Social Sciences; Beijing Institute of Commerce.