Doctoral work at the University of Manchester was on the use of in-situ ECSTM to study the formation of ultra-thin surface oxides on base metals, showing for the first time that these surfaces are crystalline phases. Spent three years at Brookhaven National Laboratory, US, first as a post-doctoral researcher and then as staff scientist, Materials Division. Developed the use of in-situ techniques in electrochemical systems, this time with synchrotron radiation-based techniques. 1998, joined Imperial College. Current research in the area of applied electrochemistry and corrosion, with a focus on the deposition of nanostructures and the study of self-forming nanocrystalline oxides; as well as fundamental work on the degradation and stability of metal systems. Fellow, Institute of Materials Mining and Minerals; Member of its Corrosion Committee and Corrosion Network. Member, International Society of Electrochemistry and Former Chair, Materials Division.