1981, Bachelor's in Agriculture Science and 1985, PhD in Agricultural Science and Agricultural Economics, La Trobe University, Melbourne; fellowship and summer programmes, UN University, Tokyo and Harvard Institute for International Development, Boston. 1985-86, Lecturer, Faculty of Resource Economics and Agribusiness, Universiti Pertanian Malaysia, Serdang; 1985-87, Senior Researcher, Institute of Strategic and International Studies Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur. With Sabah Institute for Development Studies: 1987-91, Associate Director; 1991-94, Executive Director then Chief Executive. 1995-2004, Member of Parliament; until 2004, Science Adviser to the Chief Minister of Sabah; 2004, Minister, in charge of National Unity and Integration. Chairman, Malaysian Crime Prevention Foundation. Deputy President, Kadazan Dusun Cultural Association, Sabah. Recipient of award, Panglima Gemilang Darjah Kinabalu (2002).