PhD, Georgetown University. 1986-2003, Middle East specialist, US Department of State, including assignments on the National Security Council staff, the Secretary of State's policy planning staff, the US Embassy in Cairo, and the US Consulate-General in Jerusalem. 2003-06, Visiting Professor, Georgetown University. 2006-11, Senior Associate, Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, specializing in Arab politics and US policy in the Middle East. Director, Rafik Hariri Center for the Middle East at the Atlantic Council.