Bachelor's (Hons) in Philosophy and Social Sciences, Egypt; PhD (Hons) in Social Psychology; 1974, Diploma in Social Research Methods, University of London, UK. 1969, Assistant Professor and 1975, Professor of Research Methods, University of Algiers. 1971-72, Head, Psychology and Education Sciences Department and Physiological Psychology Lab. 1974-77, Head of Higher Studies, Institut des sciences sociales. 1998, Secretary-General, Arabic Language Academy; 2003, elected Member. Elected Deputy (Algiers “wilaya”) for the seventh legislature. Later, elected President, People's National Assembly. Member, Union of Algerian Writers. Founding Member, Association des relations internationales (ASI). Member, Fondation Emir Abdelkader (FEA). Former President, Haut Conseil de la langue arabe. Recipient of honours: for efforts in the cultural and scientific areas, President of the Algerian Republic (1984); for works related to the Algerian revolution, Moudjahidine Ministry (2005); from scientific bodies, including the University of Oran (2011).