1955, License en Droit, Faculty of Law, Cairo University; 1969, LLM, and 1971, JSD, New York University. 1978-81, Ambassador, Deputy Permanent Representative to the United Nations in New York; 1981-83 Ambassador to India; 1976-78 and 1983-87, Legal Adviser, Ministry of Foreign Affairs; 1987-91, Permanent Representative of Egypt to the United Nations Office, Geneva; 1991-99, Permanent Representative of Egypt to the United Nations, New York; 1990, Judge, Judicial Tribunal of the Organization of Arab Petroleum Exporting Countries; 1994-2001, Member, International Law Commission of the United Nations; 1999-2001, Commissioner, United Nations Compensation Commission, Geneva; 2001-06, Member, International Court of Justice; 2008-11, Director, Cairo Regional Centre for International Commercial Arbitration; 2011, Minister of Foreign Affairs; since July 2011, Secretary-General of the League of Arab States. Former Member of the Governing Board, Stockholm International Peace Research Institute; former Partner, Zaki Hashem & Partners. Also held various chairmanships, United Nations. Lecturer at various universities, academies and institutes.