BA and LLB, Natal University, South Africa; Master's in Law and Doctorate in Juridical Science, Harvard University. 1967, first woman to start law practice in Natal, defence attorney for anti-apartheid activists and helped establish rights for prisoners on Robben Island; Lecturer, University of KwaZulu-Natal; Vice-President, Council, University of Durban Westville; 1995, Judge, South African High Court; 1995-99, Judge, then 1999-2003, President, UN International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda, played critical role in jurisprudence on rape as genocide, freedom of speech and hate propaganda; 2003-08, Judge, International Criminal Court, The Hague; since 2008, current position. Member, Women's National Coalition, contributed to equality clause in constitution prohibiting discrimination. Co-Founder, Equality Now, an international women's rights organization. Involved with organizations working on child detainees, victims of torture and domestic violence and economic, social and cultural rights.