Six years as Journalist - Les Echos. 1984-88, Marketing & Communications Director, Lotus Development, a software publisher. Former CEO, Les Echos Group, France's leading business publisher. 1999-2006, with the Financial Times Group, London; as CEO, responsible for all the Group's newspapers, magazines and online activities. 2006, joined Publicis Groupe as Executive Chairman, Publicis Worldwide; then CEO, MSLGROUP, Publicis Groupe's strategic communications and currently Senior Vice President of Publicis Groupe responsible for overseeing Communications, Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR), Real Estate, Insurance and cross-disciplinary programs such as Altaïr.