1979, PhD, Medicine & 1985, PhD, Neurosurgery, Univ. de Montréal; Specialist Certificate, Collège des Médecins du Québec; 1985, Specialist Certificate, Royal College of Physicians & Surgeons of Canada. 1989-92, Chief Surgeon, Dept of Neurosurgery, Hôpital Saint-Luc. 1992-96, Co-Founder & staff, Dhahran Dept of Neurosurgery, Saudi Arabia; 1996-2003, Faculty of Medicine Prof., Univ. de Sherbrooke; 2000-03, Chief Surgeon & Dir., Centre Hospitalier Univ. de Sherbrooke Dept of Surgery. 2003, elected Liberal MP for Mount Royal; 2007, re-elected; 2003-08, Minister of Health & Social Services; 2009, Director, Research in Health Law, & until 2011, Prof., McGill Univ. April 2014, elected MNA, Roberval, becoming Premier of Quebec. Member, past or present, various orgs., incl: Canadian Rep., Board of Dir., Soc. de Neurochirurgie de Langue Française; Member, Board & Cttee of Public Affairs & Policy Research, Royal College of Physicians & Surgeons of Canada; Strategic Adviser, Healthcare & Life Sciences, Secor; Partner, Persistence Capital Partners Investment Fund; Member, Int'l Advisory Board, Saudi Arabia's Minister of Health, Chairman: Canadian Health Services Research Foundation; Quebec Network for Personalized Healthcare. Recipient, awards.