BSc (Hons) in Economics, National University of Singapore; Master's in Public Administration, Harvard University. 1987-2003, with the Monetary Authority of Singapore (MAS). 2003-07, Deputy Secretary, Ministry of Finance, responsible for fiscal policy and government reserves. 2007-11, Permanent Secretary, Ministry of Trade and Industry; led the ministry’s work in economic strategy; energy policy; research and development; and international trade. Since 2011, Managing Director, Monetary Authority of Singapore (MAS). The MAS is Singapore’s central bank and integrated financial regulator. Member, Financial Stability Board (FSB) Steering Committee. Former Chair: FSB Standing Committee on Standards Implementation; International Monetary and Financial Committee Deputies Meetings; APEC Senior Officials Meetings. Has served on boards in the public, private, and people sectors, including as: Chairman, Singapore Co-operation Enterprise; Deputy Chairman, Central Provident Fund Board; Member of the Board, Housing and Development Board; Singapore Totalisator Board; Agency for Science, Technology, and Research; Civil Service College; and National Research Foundation. Former Member of the Board of Directors, DBS Bank, the largest bank in Southeast Asia. Chairman, Institute of Banking and Finance. Member, Board of Trustees, Singapore Indian Development Association, a community volunteer group. Recipient, Singapore Government’s Meritorious Service Medal and Public Administration (Gold) Medal.