BA (Hons) in English Literature, University of Malaya; 1981, Diploma in Public Administration, National Institute of Public Administration (INTAN), Malaysia; MSc in Counselling, Universiti Pertanian Malaysia (now known as Universiti Putra Malaysia); PhD, University of Georgia, USA. 1981, began career in the Administrative and Diplomatic Service; served in various capacities in the then Ministry of Trade and Industry. 1988, seconded to the ASEAN Plant Quarantine and Training Centre as Chief Administration and Procurement Officer. With the Ministry of International Trade and Industry (MITI): former Deputy Secretary-General (Trade), providing oversight for the formulation and implementation of Malaysia's international trade policies and positions; currently Secretary-General. Trustee, MyKasih Foundation; Member of the Board of Directors, Emmaus Counseling Centre. Recipient, Malcolm Knowles Award for the best PhD dissertation in the field of human resource development, American Academy of Human Resource Development (2000).