1970, Bachelor's in Chemical Engineering, Cornell University; 1974, ScD in Chemical Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology. With Science Board, US Food and Drug Administration: 1995-2002, Member; 1999-2002, Chairman. Over 600 issued or pending patents worldwide, licensed or sub-licensed to over 200 pharmaceutical, chemical, biotechnology and medical device companies. Author of over 1,000 articles. Recipient of several honorary doctorates. Named as one of 25 most important individuals in biotechnology in the world, Forbes Magazine (1999) and Bio World (1990); one of the 20 most important people in this area, Discover Magazine (2002); one of 15 innovators worldwide who will reinvent the future, Forbes Magazine (2002). Recipient of over 160 awards including US National Medal of Science (2006); Charles Stark Draper Prize; Millennium Prize (2008).