1984, BSc in Statistics, University of Padjadjaran; 1988, MBA, IPPM. 1986-95, General Manager, Business Development, Indosat. 1995-96, Director, Commercial, Telkomsel. 1996-2002, Chief Operating Officer, Telekomindo Primabhakti. 1997-2006, Director, Sales and Marketing and Director, Corporate Affairs, XL Axiata. 2008-09, Vice-President Director, PLN (Persero). 2006-08, Vice-President Director, Semen Indonesia (Persero). 2010-14, Chief Executive Officer, Bukit Asam Transpacific Railways. 2010-14, Chief Executive Officer, Rajawali Asia Resources. 2011-12, Independent Commissioner and Chief of Audit Committee, Telekomunikasi Indonesia (Persero). 2012-15, Independent Commissioner, Indosat. Since 2014, Minister of Communication Information Technology (MCIT), Republic of Indonesia.