PhD, Ecole Normale Supérieure. Formerly, Teacher: Ecole Polytechnique; Stanford University; Harvard University; Yale University; Université Pierre et Marie Curie. Former Director, Physics Department, Ecole Normale Supérieure. Since 2002, Holder of Chair in Quantum Physics, Collège de France. Since 2012, Chairman and Director, Collège de France. Recipient, Nobel Prize in Physics (2012).