1973, BSc in Economics, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria; 1976, MSc and 1980, PhD, London School of Economics. 1974-76, Planning Officer, Kano State Ministry of Economic Planning; 1976-81, Lecturer, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria. 1981-85, Controller, Nigerian Industrial Development Bank, including 1981-83, Director of Budget and Special Economic Adviser, while on leave of absence. 1985-98, General Manager, Corporate Banking, NAL Merchant Bank; 1989-91, Director-General, Technical Committee on Privatization and Commercialization; 1992-94, Executive Director, United Bank of Africa then Union Bank of Nigeria; 1994, Managing Director and Chief Executive, NAL Merchant Bank. Former Deputy Governor, Central Bank of Nigeria, including: 1999-2003, in charge of financial sector surveillance and 2004-07, in charge of operations. June 2007-December 2008, Minister of Finance. 2011-13, Minister for National Planning. Former President, Nigerian Economic Society. Fellow, NSE. Recipient: Officer of the Order of the Federal Republic (OFR); Commander Order of the Niger (CON).