BA, National University of Lesotho; MA, University of East Anglia, UK. With African National Congress: 1990-94, Deputy Head, Department of Economic Policy; 1994-98, Member, National Executive Committee and National Working Committee; 1997-98, Head, Policy Department. 1994-98, Minister of Labour, South Africa; 1999-2009, Governor, South African Reserve Bank; 2002-05, Chancellor, University of North-West, South Africa. Since 2010: Chairman, AngloGold Ashanti and Nampak; International Adviser, Goldman Sachs International. From 2013, Chairman, SacOil. Recipient of honorary doctorates; honorary professor, several South African universities.