Training in Civil Engineering. Formerly: Community Organizer; 1983-90, Regional Secretary and National Executive Committee Member, United Democratic Front; 1985-89, repeatedly detained without trial for anti-apartheid activities; 1989-91, policy manager for community and entrepreneurial development foundation; 1991, elected to ANC National Executive and Head, ANC Department of Economic Planning; Member, National Working Committee, ANC and Minister's Council of Southern African Development Community; 1994-96, Minister of Trade and Industry; 1996-May 2009, Minister of Finance. Since May 2009, Minister of the National Planning Commission (NPC) of South Africa. Served on the Board of the World Bank, African Development Bank Group and Development Bank of Southern Africa. Former Chairman, Finance and Investment Sector, Southern African Development Community. Recipient of awards.