Japan is going through a period of transition. Prime Minister Shinzo Abe took office for the second time in December 2012 and committed to bring about change to the country. Japan is struggling to overcome its shrinking economy and is still recovering from the devastating earthquake, tsunami and nuclear disaster of 2011. Additionally, the country’s recent relationships with China, Korea and other nations in the Asia-Pacific region are characterized by a new phase of unstable geopolitical dynamics. At the same time, Japan’s debate over its Trans-Pacific Partnership seems to be moving in a positive direction. At this juncture, Japan needs to address its economic issues, its ageing population, and its role and relationship with relevant Asia-Pacific players.