Information and communication technologies (ICT) is increasingly moving to the core of national competitiveness strategies around the world, thanks to its revolutionary power as a critical enabler of growth,development, and modernization. Recent economic history has shown that, as developed countries approach the technological frontier, ICT is crucial for them to continue innovating in their processes and products and to maintain their competitive advantage. Equally importantly, ICT has proven instrumental for enabling developing and middle-income economies to leapfrog to higher stages of development and fostering economic and social transformation. All over the world, ICT has empowered individuals with unprecedented access to information and knowledge, with important consequences in terms of providingeducation and access to markets, of doing business, and of social interactions, among others. Moreover, by increasing productivity and therefore economic growth in developing countries, ICT can play a formidable role in reducing poverty and improving living conditions and opportunities for the poor.