Fourth Industrial Revolution

Here's how automation and digitalization are impacting workers

Automation is increasing worker specialization. Image: REUTERS/Claro Cortes

Ester Faia
Professor and Chair in Monetary and Fiscal Policy, Goethe University Frankfurt
Gianmarco Ottaviano
Professor of Economics, LSE
Saverio Spinella
PhD student, New York University
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Fourth Industrial Revolution

A graph showing wage variance decomposition within and between firms.
Between-firm component is predominant, which may seem to suggest that mainly differences in firms. Image: CEPR.
A graph showing wage variance decomposition: Finite mixture model.
Differences in firms’ estimated characteristics explain much less of the wage dispersion. Image: CEPR.


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Fourth Industrial RevolutionManufacturingAutomotive Industry
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