Degree in Economics, Universität Münster; PhD in Economics, University of Bochum. Formerly, Research Fellow, University of Bochum and Zentrum für Europäische Wirtschaftsforschung, Mannheim; Lecturer, Fachhochschule Bochum and Universität Witten-Herdecke; Trade Promotion Officer, International Trade Centre. Since 2004, with World Economic Forum: since 2005, Senior Economist; since 2008, current position. Co-Author, Global Competitiveness Report. Co-Editor, Arab World Competitiveness Report and Global Enabling Trade Report. Research interests: national competitiveness, international trade policy, regional integration, economic development in the Middle East, Europe and Central Asia, benchmarking indicators.