1986, BA in Economics, University of Indonesia; 1990, MSc in Policy Economics and 1992, PhD in Economics, University of Illinois. 1990-92, Teaching Assistant, University of Illinois; 1994 -95 Expert, Overseas Training Office, Economic Planning Agency; 1996-98, Program Director, Master Program on Planning and Public Policy, University of Indonesia; 1998-2001, Director, Institute for Economic and Social Research, University of Indonesia; 1998-2002, Lecturer, Department of Economics, University of Indonesia; 2001-02, Visiting Professor, Andrew Young School of Public Policy, Georgia State University; 2002-04, Executive Director, IMF, for Brunei, , Cambodia, Fiji, Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia, Myanmar, Nepal, Singapore, Thailand, Tonga and Vietnam; 2004-05, Minister of State for National Development Planning; Chairperson, National Development Planning Agency. Since 2005, current position. 1992-2002, Research Associate, LPEM-FEUI, Indonesia; 1999-2000, Secretary, National Economic Council; Advisor to President; 1999-2002, Member, Board of Commissioners for PT Astra International and Unilever Indonesia. Author of several articles and books on economics and financial issues.