Financial and Monetary Systems

This is now new business models create an inclusive e-commerce market

The global e-commerce market reached $29 trillion in 2017. Image: REUTERS/Fayaz Aziz

Molly Lesher

Senior Digital Economy Policy Analyst, OECD

Jan Tscheke

Economist, OECD


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Notes: Firms with a Facebook page that engage in international trade as exporters. Online exporters use online tools or platforms (e.g. websites/apps, social networks like Facebook or Google+, etc.) to sell to customers abroad. Offline exporters do not use online tools to sell to customers abroad. Image: OECD (2019)
Notes: Unless otherwise stated, data by educational achievement refer to the percentage of individuals (aged 16 to 74) that purchased online over the last 12 months. Educational attainment is measured according to the International Standard Classification of Education (ISCED) maintained by UNESCO. The OECD Model Survey breaks down education into three groups. High education refers to tertiary education (ISCED 5 or above), middle education refers to upper or post-secondary, but not tertiary education (ISCED 3 or 4), and low education refers to at most lower secondary education. Image: OECD (2019)

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Related topics:

Financial and Monetary SystemsBanking and Capital MarketsDigital CommunicationsEconomic Progress


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