COVID-19

As football returns in empty stadiums, four graphs shows how home advantage disappears

The German Bundesliga has returned - but without fans. Image: REUTERS

Carl Singleton

Lecturer in Economics, University of Reading

Dominik Schreyer

Assistant Professor of Sports Economics, WHU – Otto Beisheim School of Management

James Reade

Associate Professor of Economics, University of Reading

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The number of closed door matches in European football by competition and season since 2002/03.
The number of closed door matches in European football by competition and season since 2002/03. Image: Carl Singleton, author provided
The outcomes in closed doors matches vs in all others since the beginning of the 2002-03 European football season. Bands show 95% confidence intervals.
The outcomes in closed doors matches vs in all others since the beginning of the 2002-03 European football season. Bands show 95% confidence intervals. Image: Carl Singleton, author provided
The estimated effects on how many yellow cards are awarded to the away team, depending on how many fans are present.
The estimated effects on how many yellow cards are awarded to the away team, depending on how many fans are present. Image: Carl Singleton, author provided
Second half injury time awarded in closed doors matches vs in all others since the beginning of the 2002-03 European football season. Bands show 95% confidence intervals.
Second half injury time awarded in closed doors matches vs in all others since the beginning of the 2002-03 European football season. Bands show 95% confidence intervals. Image: Carl Singleton, author provided
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