Climate Action

Nitrogen dioxide pollution kills thousands every year. Here's how to prevent it

Exposure to nitrogen dioxide pollution from car fumes can damage health.

Exposure to nitrogen dioxide pollution from car fumes can damage health. Image: Pixabay/Free Photos

Sonia Elks
Journalist, Reuters
Our Impact
What's the World Economic Forum doing to accelerate action on Climate Action?
The Big Picture
Explore and monitor how Future of the Environment is affecting economies, industries and global issues
A hand holding a looking glass by a lake
Crowdsource Innovation
Get involved with our crowdsourced digital platform to deliver impact at scale
Stay up to date:

Future of the Environment

  • A study has shown that around 51,000 premature deaths could be prevented each year if cities met recommended levels of air pollution.
  • Exposure to Nitrogen dioxide pollution is highest in Madrid and caused up to 7% of all natural deaths there.
  • City authorities can improve the situation by reducing dirty fossil fuels, encouraging sustainable transport and investing in green spaces.

Tens of thousands of European city dwellers die prematurely each year due to air pollution, researchers said on Wednesday in a study ranking more than 800 cities according to the risk of early death from two leading pollutants.

Nitrogen dioxide pollution - the risks

The study, published in "The Lancet Planetary Health", analysed the risk in each place from exposure to nitrogen dioxide - a poisonous gas contained in car exhaust, and to fine particulate matter, which can include smoke, dust and ash.

Have you read?

Researchers then created an online tool allowing residents to see where their city places on the ratings tables, together with data comparing their air quality with that of other urban hubs.

"Cities are hotspots of air pollution," said lead author Mark Nieuwenhuijsen from the Barcelona Institute for Global Health, adding that he hoped the comparison site would help raise awareness of a "silent killer".

"It's a very good tool for people to see what's happening in their city ... and they really should use that information to push for action," he said.

Nitrogen dioxide pollution is causing premature deaths

Researchers in the new study used city-specific data on air quality to calculate what percentage of deaths were attributable to exposure to nitrogen dioxide pollution and fine particulate matter.

Some 51,000 premature deaths from fine particulate matter and 900 from nitrogen dioxide pollution could be prevented each year if cities reduced the pollutants to levels recommended by the World Health Organization, they calculated.

Madrid topped the nitrogen dioxide pollution ranking, where researchers calculated up to 7% of all natural deaths were caused by the pollutant, followed by Antwerp, Turin, Paris and Milan.

Cities in Italy's Po Valley, southern Poland and the eastern Czech Republic were seen at highest risk of death from fine particulate matter, which comes from a wider range of activities including industry, household heating and coal fires.

Northern European countries such as Iceland, Norway and Sweden dominated the list of cities with the lowest rates of deaths attributable to both pollutants.

Air pollution is responsible for about seven million premature deaths worldwide each year, according to the United Nations, which has called for the risk to be treated as a human rights issue. Nitrogen dioxide pollution in particular has been the primary reason for these deaths.

Nitrogen dioxide pollution is the leadings cause of several premature deaths
Nitrogen dioxide pollution is the leadings cause of several premature deaths Image: World Health Organization

The study underlines the largely hidden impact of air pollution in cities, said Matt Whitney from The Clean Air Fund.

"Very few people are aware of the massive impact that it has on health," he told the Thomson Reuters Foundation.

He called for city authorities to take action including reducing dirty fossil fuels, encouraging sustainable transport and investing in green spaces to tackle nitrogen dioxide pollution.

Don't miss any update on this topic

Create a free account and access your personalized content collection with our latest publications and analyses.

Sign up for free

License and Republishing

World Economic Forum articles may be republished in accordance with the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International Public License, and in accordance with our Terms of Use.

The views expressed in this article are those of the author alone and not the World Economic Forum.

Related topics:
Climate ActionNature and Biodiversity
World Economic Forum logo
Global Agenda

The Agenda Weekly

A weekly update of the most important issues driving the global agenda

Subscribe today

You can unsubscribe at any time using the link in our emails. For more details, review our privacy policy.

Climate transition plans: CEOs on how to deliver more than just net-zero

Pim Valdre and Nicolas Salomon

June 19, 2024

About Us



Partners & Members

  • Join Us

Language Editions

Privacy Policy & Terms of Service

© 2024 World Economic Forum