Cities and Urbanization

This designer says 3D textiles could 'replace concrete and cement'

This is a reposting of an article originally published on Dezeen. If you wish to copy or redistribute this article please do so in accordance with these terms:

3D-woven bricks, designed by Dutch designer, Hella Jongerius. Image: Dezeen

Jennifer Hahn
Author, Dezeen
Our Impact
What's the World Economic Forum doing to accelerate action on Cities and Urbanization?
The Big Picture
Explore and monitor how Cities and Urbanization is affecting economies, industries and global issues
A hand holding a looking glass by a lake
Crowdsource Innovation
Get involved with our crowdsourced digital platform to deliver impact at scale
Stay up to date:

Cities and Urbanization

  • Textile could replace concrete and cement in the building industry, says Dutch designer, Hella Jongerius.
  • The 3D weaving technology could create temporary additions to buildings to respond to weather changes, such as balconies or louvres.
  • The experimental loom is a vehicle to explore the wider application of weaving but also the sustainability of the textile industry.

New three-dimensional weaving technologies could revolutionise architecture and lead to lighter, more flexible buildings according to Dutch designer Hella Jongerius.

Computerised looms that can produce 3D fabrics could lead to a new type of "pliable architecture", the designer said.

"Textile is the lightest and strongest construct that you can have," she said. "So with this, we could replace concrete and cement in the building industry."

Jongerius has previously created a series of 3D-woven bricks Image: Dezeen

3D weaving is in its infancy but it has already been used to create medical implants from polyester and to form aircraft bodies from carbon fibres.

But the technology could be scaled up to create buildings, the designer argued.

Have you read?

Jongerius made the comments during a live Dezeen talk to mark the opening of her Woven Cosmos exhibition at Berlin's Gropius Bau.

In the talk, broadcast live from the museum, the designer shared an early preview of the show and discussed how she has used high-tech weaving applications.

You can have balconies that pop up when the sun shines

As part of the Woven Cosmos exhibition, Jongerius is showcasing a number of experimental prototypes for what this kind of construction could look like in the form of her Pliable Architecture series.

Created over two years, the series consists of fabric modules that are woven as flat units using an advanced digital jacquard machine but can be unfolded into multi-dimensional pop-up structures, achieving a large volume with minimal use of material.

The Pliable Architecture series includes fabric modules that unfold into cubes Image: Dezeen

Several of these are interwoven with conductive yarn and laminated strips of photovoltaic cells, in a technique that Jongerius said could one day be used to create new kinds of solar farms.

"With solar yarns, we could replace our solar panels that are now on our roofs or in fields," she said. "You could have structures and sculptures instead of looking at technology."

Jongerius revealed that she is working with university researchers to use the electricity generated by the solar fibres to transform the two-dimensional fabric modules into 3D forms.

She predicts that this kind of technology could be scaled up to create solar-powered, carbon-fibre balconies that automatically unfurl on sunny days.

"You can have balconies that pop up when the sun shines or platforms to have drones arriving," the designer explained.

3D weaves can outperform 3D knits

According to Jongerius, 3D weaving is more versatile than 3D knitting, which has proven popular among footwear and furniture manufacturers in recent years.

"Knitting is not so strong and it's quite a simple technique," she said.

"It's one loop over another loop, so it's restricted."

"In weaving, you have many more possibilities," she added. "In a way, weaving is an empty vehicle. So you have one [yarn] up, one down and then you can add all kinds of functions like absorbing moisture or sound, antibacterial functions, solar cells."

Jongerius first began working with multiaxial weaving for her 2019 exhibition at Lafayette Anticipations in Paris. Here, she created woven bricks using a special multiaxial loom, developed with the team at her studio Jongeriuslab by hacking and combining four separate handlooms.

"I really wanted to build a loom because a machine for this way of working does not exist," she said. "So it's more a vehicle that can raise questions, a research loom."

In contrast to the automated 3D weaving machine created by Nigerian American designer Oluwaseyi Sosanya, Jongerius's version is entirely operated by hand in the hope of offering more space for experimentation.

Called Seamless Loom, the machine will be exhibited as part of Woven Cosmos alongside a number of interactive installations that will take form over the course of the exhibition, with members of the Jongeriuslab team coming in to work on the looms every day.

According to Jongarius, the exhibition also offers a space to consider the healing possibilities of weaving as well as suggesting ways that the textile industry can become more sustainable.

"It's the most polluting industry and the labour conditions in low-wage countries are really terrible," she said. "So I wanted to address this sustainability topic."

The Woven Cosmos exhibition can be explored digitally via the Gropius Bau website and will be open for visitors as soon as coronavirus restrictions allow. See Dezeen Events Guide for an up-to-date list of architecture and design events taking place around the world.

Don't miss any update on this topic

Create a free account and access your personalized content collection with our latest publications and analyses.

Sign up for free

License and Republishing

World Economic Forum articles may be republished in accordance with the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International Public License, and in accordance with our Terms of Use.

The views expressed in this article are those of the author alone and not the World Economic Forum.

Related topics:
Cities and UrbanizationAdvanced Manufacturing
World Economic Forum logo
Global Agenda

The Agenda Weekly

A weekly update of the most important issues driving the global agenda

Subscribe today

You can unsubscribe at any time using the link in our emails. For more details, review our privacy policy.

The cost of rebuilding Ukraine, and other urban transformation stories you need to read

Lisa Chamberlain

February 22, 2024

About Us



Partners & Members

  • Join Us

Language Editions

Privacy Policy & Terms of Service

© 2024 World Economic Forum