Energy Transition

Can the world ever learn to love nuclear power?

A man fishes in the Susquehanna River in front of the Three Mile Island Nuclear power plant in Goldsboro, Pennsylvania, U.S. May 30, 2017. REUTERS/Carlo Allegri - RC1670FDEB70

A man fishes in front of the Three Mile Island nuclear power plant in Pennsylvania, May 30, 2017. Image: REUTERS/Carlo Allegri - RC1670FDEB70

John Letzing
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  • Ten European countries have called for nuclear power to be officially labelled climate-friendly.
  • Some experts say nuclear power may be essential for cutting emissions and curbing climate change.
  • But the energy source remains wildly unpopular in much of the world.

When I was three years old, a reactor at the nuclear power plant 30 kilometres east of our split-level suburban home partially melted down.

Like most people in the neighborhood, when my parents heard about the trouble at Three Mile Island, they considered loading up the family station wagon and fleeing. Like most people in the neighborhood, they didn’t.

Several years after the worst nuclear accident in US history, a Columbia University study couldn’t establish a clear connection between the radioactive gas it released and elevated local cancer rates. Yet by that point, the public was in no mood to hear about the relative safety of splitting atoms.

In a strange coincidence, a Hollywood blockbuster about the perils of nuclear power was released just days before the incident at Three Mile Island. “The China Syndrome” benefited from auspicious timing, but it was just part of a long thread of similarly themed, similarly alarming entertainment. Headlines generated by events like the Fukushima disaster in Japan have only further hardened public opinion.

But what if this source of so much collective anxiety is also one of our best bets for averting a climate catastrophe?

Have you read?

How the world views nuclear energy

An irony noted when Three Mile Island closed in 2019 was that it happened on the same day activists around the world took to the streets to call for climate action. One action to help prevent devastating global warming, according to scientists and economists convened by the UN, would be to increase the electricity we get from nuclear energy.

Earlier this week, 10 European Union countries issued a statement calling for the bloc to label nuclear a climate-friendly energy source – which could boost investment in the sector. They say nuclear is a safe option to stabilize energy prices, and will help the EU hit its target of becoming carbon-neutral by 2050.

However, much of the world remains unconvinced.

When Japan restarted a nuclear reactor to help the country cut emissions it triggered alarm, and California is closing its last nuclear power plant despite a state mandate to curb emissions.

Nuclear power proponents say a “not in my backyard” (NIMBY) attitude hinders development – though not everywhere. “Hard to be a NIMBY in China,” as one American journalist quipped. China has doubled its nuclear capacity recently, and is likely to maintain that pace at least until 2025.

Image: World Economic Forum

The science of atomic radiation originated in the late 19th century, and interest in harnessing nuclear fission peaked during the 20th. Militaries prized it as a means to power submarines and put vessels out to sea for long periods without having to refuel.

The first nuclear power plant was connected to an electricity grid in the Soviet Union in 1954. Hundreds more have been built since, as critics raise issues related to safety, human rights violations, nuclear weapons proliferation, and waste that can remain lethal for thousands of years.

Germany has decided the risks aren’t worth it, and is phasing out nuclear power even as it aims to achieve net-zero emissions by 2045 (it is one of a smaller group of EU countries opposed to the recent statement by member states backing nuclear as a green option).

A next generation of nuclear reactors could improve safety and efficiency. “Small modular reactors” may produce less energy individually, but can be scaled up as needed. They also include added safety features.

One company founded by Bill Gates has developed a “Natrium” reactor technology that stores heat in molten salt and is designed to work well with renewables. It recently announced plans for a pilot project in Wyoming.

About 440 reactors – the number of operable reactors has remained relatively flat for decades – currently supply about 10% of the world’s electricity. However, dozens more are under construction.

Image: World Economic Forum

Nuclear energy promises to be a source of lively debate at the UN Climate Change Conference of the Parties (COP26) scheduled to begin soon. Meanwhile, new research on the impact of the accident at Three Mile Island continues to be published.

For more context, here are links to further reading from the World Economic Forum's Strategic Intelligence platform:

  • Some context behind the nuclear-as-green-option statement made recently by EU members and spearheaded by France, according to this analysis – the country already gets 70% of its electricity from nuclear power. (Clean Energy Wire)
  • Out of the ashes of Chernobyl grew greater transparency and openness, according to this analysis, which argues that the global networks of cooperation created after the accident mean nuclear can now be relied upon to help tackle climate change. (Science)
  • How do you ensure a steady supply of nuclear fuel in a world of unpredictable demand? According to this report, part of China’s answer is to invest $435 million in a uranium plant in Kazakhstan. (The Diplomat)
  • Something to ponder amid a “nuclear renaissance,” according to this report: there are no guarantees that the countries now wealthy and stable enough to build and safely maintain nuclear power plants will remain that way. (Russian International Affairs Council)
  • Ghana operates a “research” reactor acquired from China, according to this report, and has approached China, Russia and South Korea for financial assistance to build a nuclear power plant that could cost as much as $10 billion. (SAIIA)
  • Can Germany maintain energy supply security on renewables alone? According to this analysis, by the end of next year the country will already have over 23 gigawatts less nuclear power capacity than 10 years ago. (Clean Energy Wire)
  • In order to heal the divide over nuclear energy, this analysis argues that debate must move beyond the simple “for-or-against dichotomy” that’s engendered mistrust and deepened fears. (Harvard Kennedy School)

On the Strategic Intelligence platform, you can find feeds of expert analysis related to the Future of Energy, Climate Change, and hundreds of additional topics. You’ll need to register to view.

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