Full report
Published: 11 January 2023

Global Risks Report 2023

Appendix B: Executive Opinion Survey: National Risk Perceptions

Figure B.1 presents the list of 35 risks that were incorporated into the World Economic Forum’s 2022 Executive Opinion Survey (EOS), which was administered between April and September 2022. The risks are comparable to those in the GRPS (Global Risks Perception Survey) but are applied at a more granular level to reflect the possible short-term and country-level manifestations of global risks.

To ensure legibility, the names of some of the global risks have been abbreviated in the figures. The portion of the full name used in the abbreviation is in bold.

Global Risks Report 2023, Figure B.1 | List of risks

Figure B.2 presents the top five risks for each of the 121 economies surveyed.

Over 12,000 respondents were presented with the following question: “Which five risks are the most likely to pose the biggest threat to your country in the next two years?” and were asked to select these from a list of 35 risks.

“Risk 1” indicates the most frequently selected risk in each economy. Tied risks are presented in alphabetical order, with the tie indicated by numbering. For example, in Angola, two risks (“Rapid and/or sustained inflation” and “Employment and livelihood crises”) are tied for first place and there is, therefore, no risk listed in second place.

Global Risks Report 2023, Figure B.2 | Top five risks identified by the Executive Opinion Survey (EOS)
Global Risks Report 2023, Figure B.2 | Top five risks identified by the Executive Opinion Survey (EOS)
Global Risks Report 2023, Figure B.2 | Top five risks identified by the Executive Opinion Survey (EOS)
Global Risks Report 2023, Figure B.2 | Top five risks identified by the Executive Opinion Survey (EOS)
Global Risks Report 2023, Figure B.2 | Top five risks identified by the Executive Opinion Survey (EOS)
Global Risks Report 2023, Figure B.2 | Top five risks identified by the Executive Opinion Survey (EOS)
Global Risks Report 2023, Figure B.2 | Top five risks identified by the Executive Opinion Survey (EOS)
Global Risks Report 2023, Figure B.2 | Top five risks identified by the Executive Opinion Survey (EOS)
Global Risks Report 2023, Figure B.2 | Top five risks identified by the Executive Opinion Survey (EOS)
Global Risks Report 2023, Figure B.2 | Top five risks identified by the Executive Opinion Survey (EOS)

Partner Institutes

The World Economic Forum’s Centre for the New Economy and Society is pleased to acknowledge and thank the following organizations as its valued Partner Institutes:


Institute for Contemporary Studies, Tirana Business University and College

Helton Cevi, Project Coordinator

Artan Hoxha, President of ISB and Administrator of TBU

Oltjon Valisi, Assistant Project Coordinator


Centre de Recherche En Economie Appliquée Pour Le Développement - CREAD

Yacine Belarbi, Director

Khaled Menna, Director of Macroeconomics and

Economic Integration



João Freitas, Country Manager

Luis Verdeja, Director


IAE Business School, Universidad Austral

Eduardo Fracchia, Director of Academic Department of Economics

Martin Calveira, Research Economist


Economy and Values Research Center

Sevak Hovhannisyan, Board Member and Senior Associate

Australia, Belgium, Canada, Indonesia, Italy, Sweden, United Kingdom, United States


Thomas Huff, Senior Project Manager

Steffen Bott, Vice President, Sales

Valentyna Chuikina, Associate Account Director


Austrian Institute of Economic Research - WIFO Gabriel Felbermayr, Director

Michael Peneder, Project Lead

Alexandros Charos, Survey Expert

Bahamas, The

The Government and Public Policy Institute, University of the Bahamas

Zhivargo Laing, Executive Director

Jeannie D. Gibson, Policy Assistant


Bahrain Economic Development Board

Khalid Humaidan, Chief Executive

Nada Al-Saeed, Executive Director

Rima AlKilani, Executive Director

Fatema Alatbi, Senior Executive

Sara Ishaq, Senior Executive


Centre for Policy Dialogue - CPD

Dr Fahmida Khatun, Executive Director

Dr Khondaker Golam Moazzem, Research Director

Ratia Rehnuma, Research Associate

Chowdhury Fariha, Research Intern


University of West Indies

Jonathan G. Lashley, Senior Fellow

Don Marshall, Professor

Kenisha Chase, Research Assistant


Institut de Recherche Empirique en Economie Politique - IREEP

Leonard Wantchekon, President

Stéphania Houngan, Research Associate

Plurinational State of Bolivia, Costa Rica, Dominican Republic, El Salvador, Honduras, Panama

INCAE Business School

Ronald Arce, Researcher

Enrique Bolaños, President

Octavio Martínez, Director

Bosnia and Herzegovina

School of Economics and Business, University of Sarajevo

Jasmina Selimovic, Dean

Zlatko Lagumdzija, Professor

Amra Kapo, Associate Professor


Botswana National Productivity Centre

Letsogile Batsetswe, Research Consultant and Statistician

Zelda Okatch, Information and Research Services Manager

Christopher Diswai, Executive Director


Fundação Dom Cabral

Carlos Arruda, Professor of Innovation and Competitiveness

Hugo Tadeu, Professor of Innovation

Miguel Costa, Research Assistant


Center for Economic Development

Maria Prohaska, Director

Ivalina Simeonova, Project Manager


Nuppun Research and Consulting Co., Ltd

Chanthan Tha, Researcher

Dalen Vyla, Research Assistant


Compétitivité Cameroon

Hermann Fotie Ii, Permanent Secretary

Tanankem Belmondo Voufo, Expert Investment Climate

Jean Baptiste Nsoe Nkouli, Competitiveness Observatory Expert

Cape Verde

INOVE Research

Frantz Tavares, Chief Executive Officer

Jerónimo Freire, Project Manager

Júlio Delgado, Director


Groupe de Recherches Alternatives Et de Monitoring Du Projet Pétrole-Tchad-Cameroun

Simael Mbairassem, Economist in charge of Research and Public Policies

Maoundonodji Gilbert, Managing Director


School of Government, University Adolfo Ibañez

Carolina Apablaza, Director

Patricio Aroca, Professor

Isabella Cuneo, Doctoral Student


Dataway Horizon

Lingling Qiao, General Manager

Yuming Zhi, Research Director

Zhuyu Yao, Senior Project Manager


National Planning Department of Colombia

Consejo Privado de Competitividad

Jorge Ivan Gonzalez, General Director, Department of National Planning

Camilo Rivera Perez, Technical Director, Innovation and Private Sector Development

Sara Patricia Rivera, Adviser, Innovation and Private Sector Development

Congo, Democratic Republic of

Congo-Invest Consulting

Teza Bila Minlangu, Administrator

Faila Tabu Ngandi, Managing Director

Bertin Muderhwa, Head of Service in charge of Studies and Statistics at the Federation of Businesses of Congo

Côte d'Ivoire

Centre de Promotion des Investissements en Côte D’ivoire - CEPICI

Solange Amichia, CEO

Ramatou Fall, Director of Business Climate

Simon Meledje, Head of Planning and Monitoring

Bernadine Yeble N'Guessan, Research officer


Cyprus Employers and Industry Confederation - OEB

Antonis Frangoudis, Director Business Development and Economic Affairs Department

Bank of Cyprus

Kyriacos Antoniou, Governance Officer

Andreas Alexandrou, Manager Strategy and Customer Insights

Czech Republic

CMC Graduate School of Business

Tomáš Janča, Executive Director


Danish Technological Institute

Stig Yding Sørensen, Senior Specialist

Andreas Bjerre Lunkeit, Consultant


ESPAE Graduate School of Management - ESPOL

Sara Wong, Professor

Tania Tenesaca, Project Coordinator

Xavier Ordeñana, Dean


Egyptian Center for Economic Studies - ECES

Abla Abdel Latif, Executive Director, and Director of Research

Salma Bahaa El Din, Senior Economist

Ahmed Maged, Research Assistant

Hossam Khater, Research Assistant

Mohamed Khater, Research Assistant


Estonian Institute of Economic Research -EKI

Marje Josing, Director


ETLA Research Institute of the Finnish Economy

Aki Kangasharju, Managing Director

Päivi Puonti, Head of Forecasting

Ville Kaitila, Researcher


Business France

Cassagnes Louise, Economist

Marcias Manuel, Head of Service : Economic studies


TSU Center for Analysis and Forecasting

Vakhtang Charaia, Director

Otar Anguridze, Head of the Board

Shota Gulbani, Expert

Mariam Lashkhi, Project Manager

Mamuka Tsereteli, Expert


Institute for Innovation and Technology within the VDI/VDE Innovation + Technik GmbH
Michael Nerger, Project Leader


Association of Ghana Industries

Yaw Adu-Gyamfi, President

Seth Twum-Akwaboah, Chief Executive Officer

John Defor, Direcctor, Policy and Research


SEV Hellenic Federation of Enterprises

Michael Mitsopoulos, Director - Business Environment and Regulatory Affairs

Athanasios Printsipas, Senior Advisor - SEV Business Council for Sustainable Development



Juan Carlos Paiz, President of the Board of Directors

Juan Carlos Zapata, Chief Executive Officer

Fernando Spross, Associate Researcher

Priscilla González, Corporate Affairs Coordinator

Hong Kong SAR, China

Hong Kong General Chamber of Commerce

Simon Ngan, Director, Policy and Research

Wilson Chong, Senior Economist


KOPINT-TÁRKI Economic Research Ltd

Peter Vakhal, Senior Research Associate

Éva Palócz, CEO


The Icelandic Centre for Future Studies

Karl Friðriksson, Manager Director


LeadCap Knowledge Solutions Pvt Ltd - LeadCap Ventures

Sangeeth Varghese, Managing Director and CEO

Vidyadhar Prabhudesai, Director and COO


Irish Business and Employers Confederation - IBEC Geraldine Anderson, Head of Research


Manufacturers' Association of Israel - MAI

Ron Tomer, President

Ruby Ginel, CEO

Dan Catarivas, General Manager, Foreign Trade and International Relations Division

Itai Nakash, Deputy General Manager, Foreign Trade and International Relations Division


Mona School of Business and Management - MSBM, The University of the West Indies, Mona

David McBean, Executive Director

Franklin Johnston, Director

Yvette Cameron-Harris, Project Administrator

Jamaica Promotions Corporation - JAMPRO

Shulette Cox, Vice President, Research, Advocacy, and Project Implementation

National Competitiveness Council Jamaica

Sharifa Powell, Consultant Project Manager


Waseda University

Jusuke Ikegami, Professor

Mitsuyo Tsubayama, Coordinator

Shoko Miya, Coordinator


Ministry of Planning and International Cooperation of Jordan

Hadram Al Fayes, Director

Ghada Issa, Head of Competitiveness Division

Thamer Masarweh, Researcher


Center for Strategic Initiatives LPP

Olzhas Khudaibergenov, Senior Partner

Yerbol Tulegenov, Associate Partner

Symbat Aliaskarova, Consultant


University of Nairobi

Karuti Kanyinga, Research Professor and Director, IDS

Vincent Mugo, Project Assistant IDS

Paul Kamau, Associate Research Professor, IDS


Kuwait University

Fahad Al-Rashid, Committee Chair

Adel Al-Husainan, Committee Member

Majed Jamal Al-Deen, Committee Member


Economic Policy Institute

Marat Tazabekov, Chairman


Enterprise and Development Consultants Co. Ltd - EDC

Buakhai Phimmavong, Managing Partner

Thipphasone Inthachack, Office administrator


Stockholm School of Economics in Riga

Arnis Sauka, Head of the Centre for Sustainable Development


Private Sector Foundation of Lesotho - PSFL

Thabo Qhesi, CEO

Bokang Tsoanamatsie, Public Relations Officer

Qothoase Khofane, Researcher

Liberia, Sierra Leone


Omodele Jones, Chief Executive Officer


Innovation Agency Lithuania

Jone Kalendiene, Head of Research and Analysis Division

Irena Karelina, Analyst


Luxembourg Chamber of Commerce

Christel Chatelain, Director of the Economic Affairs Department

Jean-Baptiste Nivet, Sr Economist

Sidonie Paris, Economist


Malawi Confederation of Chambers of Commerce and Industry

Chancellor Kaferapanjira, Chief Executive

Madalitso Kazembe, Director, Business Environment and Policy Advocacy

Manfred Maguru, Economic Analyst

Chancy Mkandawire, Economic Analyst


Malaysia Productivity Corporation

Dato' Abdul Latif Abu Seman, Director General

Zahid Ismail, Deputy Director General

Dr Mazrina Mohamed Ibramsah, Deputy Director General

Wan Fazlin Nadia Wan Osman, Director


Mali Applied and Theoretical Economics Research Group - GREAT

Massa Coulibaly, Executive Director

Wélé Fatoumata Binta Sow, Researcher

Badiégué Diallo, Administrative and Financial Assistant


Competitive Malta - Foundation for National Competitiveness

Adrian Said, Associate

Matthew Castillo, Associate


Economic Development Board

Sanroy Seechurn, Head of Department

Ken Poonoosamy, CEO

Dooshala Ramjutun-Ramlaul, Manager


Instituto Mexicano para la Competitividad - IMCO

Valeria Moy, General Director

Ivania Mazari, Program Manager

Ministry of the Economy

Jorge Eduardo Arreola Cavazos, General Director for Competitiveness and Competition

Carlos Rubén Altamirano Márquez, Director

Fernando Tonatiuh Parra Calvo, Underdirector for Competitiveness


Open Society Forum - OSF

Erdenejargal Perenlei, Executive Director

Oyunbadam Davaakhuu, Program Manager


The Institute for Strategic Studies and Prognoses - ISSP

Maja Drakic Grgur, Project Coordinator

Veselin Vukotic, President


The Policy Centre for the New South

Dr Karim El Aynaoui, Executive President

Asmaa Tahraoui, Senior Knoweldge Manager

Abdelaaziz Ait Ali, Head Economics Research Department


Institute for Public Policy Research - IPPR

Ndapunikwa Fikameni, Research Associate

Salmi Shigwedha, Research Associate

Graham Hopwood, Director


Competitiveness and Development Institute - CODE

Dr Ramesh C. Chitrakar, Project Director/ Country Coordinator

Abhinandan Baniya, Associate Team Member

Menaka Shrestha, Team Member


Amsterdam Centre for Business Innovation, University of Amsterdam

Henk Volberda, Director and Professor

Kevin Heij, Senior Innovation Researcher

Pieter van den Brink, Research Assistant

Nina Versluijs, Research Assistant

Jochem Bouman, Research Assistant

New Zealand


Kirk Hope, CEO

Kathryn Asare, Manager Communications


Nigerian Economic Summit Group - NESG

Laoye Jaiyeola, Chief Executive Officer

Dr Olusegun Omisakin, Director of Research and Development

Sodik Olofin, Economist


National Competitiveness Office - NCO

Dr Salim Abdullah Al Shaikh, Acting Chief of NCO

Juhaina Saleh Al Balushi, Economic Researcher

Jawaher Sultan Al Habsi, Business Analyst


Mishal Pakistan

Amir Jahangir, Chief Executive Officer

Puruesh Chaudhary, Director

Amna Sabahat Bhutta, Director


Paraguayan Foundation for Cooperation and Development

Martin Burt, CEO

Luis Fernando Sanabria, CEO

Sol Urbieta, Management Assistant


Industrial Development Center of the National Society of Industries

Luis Tenorio, Executive Director

Maria Elena Baraybar, Project Assistant

Benoni Sanchez, Head of Systems


Makati Business Club - MBC

Roxanne Lu, Programs Director

Trisha Teope, Foreign Programs Officer


National Bank of Poland

Piotr Boguszewski, Economic Advisor

Piotr Szpunar, Director


Business Administrators Forum - FAE

Paulo Carmona, President

Mariana Marques dos Santos, Member of the Board

PROFORUM Association for the Development of Engineering

Ilidio De Ayala Serôdio, Vice-President

Helena Roquette, Secretary


Qatari Businessmen Association - QBA

Social and Economic Survey Research Institute, Qatar University

Issa Abdull Salam Abu Issa, Secretary General

Sarah Abdallah, Deputy General Manager

Maria Jusay, Executive Secretary

Prof. Kaltham Al Ghanim, Director, Social and Economic Survey Research Institute

Raymond Carasig, Senior Survey Support Specialist


Association for Women Entrepreneurship Development - ADAF

The Chamber of Commerce and Industry of Romania

Rotaru Cornelia, President

Rotaru Gela, Business Analyst

Savu Cristina, Communication Expert


Rwanda Development Board

Delphine Uwase, Ag. Head of Strategy and Competitiveness Department

Kennedy Kalisa, Strategy Analyst

Richard Kayibanda, Ag. Chief Strategy and Compliance Officer

Saudi Arabia

Alfaisal University

Mohammed Kafaji, Vice Dean for Quality Assurance and Accreditation

National Competitiveness Centre

Eiman Habbas Al-Mutairi, CEO of the National Competitiveness Centre

Waleed Al-Rudaian, Deputy CEO of the National Competitiveness Centre

Salman Al-Tukhaifi, General manager

Abdulrahman M. Al-Ghamdi, Project Manager


Université Cheikh Anta Diop of Dakar

Thierno Thioune, Directeur du Centre de Recherches Economiques Appliquées


Foundation for the Advancement of Economics - FREN

Aleksandar Radivojević, Coordinator

Dejan Molnar, Director


Singapore Economic Development Board

Cheng Wai San, Director and Head

Teo Xinyu, Executive Officer, Senior


Business Alliance of Slovakia - PAS

Peter Serina, Executive Director

Robert Kičina, Member of the Board


Institute for Economic Research

Peter Stanovnik, Professor

Sonja Uršič, Senior Research Assistant

University of Ljubljana, Faculty of Economics

Mateja Drnovšek, Full Professor

South Africa

Business Unity South Africa

Tyson Thamsanqa Sibanda, Economic Policy Manager

Olivier Serrao, Economic Policy Executive Director

Cas Coovadia, Chief Executive Officer

South Korea

Korea Development Institute

Inho Song, Executive Director, Economic Information and Education Center

Joohee Cho, Head, Public Opinion Analysis Unit

Boyoung Han, Senior Reseach Associate, Public Opinion Analysis Unit

Kosovo*, North Macedonia

Economic Chamber of North-West Macedonia

Drilon Iseni, Executive Director

Durim Zekiri, Operations Manager

Miranda Ajdini, Legal associate


IESE Business School

Pascual Berrone, Professor, Director of the International Center for Competitiveness

María Luisa Blázquez, Research Associate

Sri Lanka

Institute of Policy Studies of Sri Lanka - IPS

Kithmina Hewage, Research Economist

Tharindu Udayanga, Research Assistant


University of St.Gallen, Center for Financial Services Innovation

Tobias Trütsch, Managing Director

Taiwan, China

Taiwan Institute of Economic Research

Chen, Yi-Man, Research Fellow

Tsuo, I-Chun, Assistant Research Fellow



Donald Mmari, Executive Director

Lucas Katera, Director of Collaborations and Capacity Building

Cornel Jahari, Researcher and Field Manager


Chulalongkorn Business School

Kanyarat (Lek) Sanoran, Assistant Professor and Assistant Dean at Dean's Office

Wilert Puriwat, Professor and Dean

Nat Kulvanich, Assistant Professor

Trinidad and Tobago

Arthur Lok Jack Global School of Business

Raynardo Hassanally, Alumni Relations Coordinator

Balraj Kistow, Programme Director

Ron Sookram, Academic Coordinator


Institut Arabe des Chefs d’Entreprises

Majdi Hassen, Executive Director

Hager KARAA, Head of Studies Department


TÜSIAD, Sabanci University Competitivness Forum - REF

Esra Durceylan Kaygusuz, Director

Sezen Uğurlu Sum, Project Specialist


CASE Ukraine, Center for Social and Economic Research

Dmytro Boyarchuk, Executive Director

Vladimir Dubrovskiy, Leading Economist

Oksana Kuziakiv, Senior Adviser

United Arab Emirates

Federal Competitiveness and Statistics Centre

Hanan Ahli, Director General of Federal Competitiveness and Statistics Centre

Rashed Abdulkarim Al Blooshi, Undersecretary of Department of Economic Development, Abu Dhabi

Hend Abdulla, Analyst


Universidad ORT Uruguay

Isidoro Hodara, Professor

Bruno Gili, Professor

Federico Monetti, Professor

Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela

Venezuelan Council for Investment Promotion

Jennyn Osorio, Economics Affairs Manager

Jorge García, Business Intelligence Manager

Viet Nam

Ho Chi Minh City Institute for Development Studies - HIDS

Tran Hoang Ngan, Director

Trieu Thanh Son, Head of Rereach Management

Nguyen Manh Quan, Researcher


Yemeni Business Club - YBC

Fathi Abdulwase Hayel Saeed, Chairman

Ghadeer Ahmed Almaqhafi, Executive Director

Safa Abdullah Alsayaghi, Projects Manager


University of Zambia

Joseph Simbaya, Director

Chitalu Chama Chiliba, Assistant Director and Senior Research Fellow

Patricia Funjika, Research Fellow


National Competitiveness Commission

Phillip Phiri, Executive Director

Brighton Shayanewako, Director, Competitiveness

Douglas Muzimba, Chief Economist, International Competitiveness

Elizabeth Magwaza, Economist

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