In late July, a heatwave engulfed Europe, breaking temperature records in the UK, France, the Netherlands, Belgium and Germany. It was the second episode of extreme heat to hit the continent since June.

France measured its highest-ever temperature of 46°C at Verargues, near Montpellier, in June. Then, in July, Paris broke its own record with a new high of 42.6°C.

People cooling off in the Trocadero fountains across from the Eiffel Tower are reflected in sunglasses in Paris as a new heatwave broke temperature records in France, July 25, 2019.
People cooling off in the Trocadero fountains across from the Eiffel Tower are reflected in sunglasses in Paris as a new heatwave broke temperature records in France, July 25, 2019.
Image: REUTERS/Pascal Rossignol

The two heatwaves caused about 1,500 more deaths than usual in France for the time of year, according to health minister Agnes Buzyn. Half of those who died were aged over 75.

The toll was far lower than in the summer of 2003, when about 15,000 people died during a heatwave that lasted 20 days.

There were 18 days of extreme heat during June and July, Buzyn told French radio. Preventive measures had reduced mortality “by a factor of 10”, she said.

Rank of annual maximum temperatures in 2019 compared to 1950-2018.
Image: WWA

The French national weather service issued red alerts – the highest level – in several areas. Events were called off, “cool rooms” were set up in public buildings, pools opened for late-night swimming, more drinking fountains were installed and authorities made regular checks on elderly and vulnerable people.

Meanwhile firefighters battled to contain forest fires raging in southern France. In June, Catalonia in the northeast of Spain, had its worst wildfire in 20 years. Blazes also wreaked havoc in Greece.

What’s the World Economic Forum doing about climate change?

Climate change poses an urgent threat demanding decisive action. Communities around the world are already experiencing increased climate impacts, from droughts to floods to rising seas. The World Economic Forum's Global Risks Report continues to rank these environmental threats at the top of the list.

To limit global temperature rise to well below 2°C and as close as possible to 1.5°C above pre-industrial levels, it is essential that businesses, policy-makers, and civil society advance comprehensive near- and long-term climate actions in line with the goals of the Paris Agreement on climate change.

The World Economic Forum's Climate Initiative supports the scaling and acceleration of global climate action through public and private-sector collaboration. The Initiative works across several workstreams to develop and implement inclusive and ambitious solutions.

This includes the Alliance of CEO Climate Leaders, a global network of business leaders from various industries developing cost-effective solutions to transitioning to a low-carbon, climate-resilient economy. CEOs use their position and influence with policy-makers and corporate partners to accelerate the transition and realize the economic benefits of delivering a safer climate.

Fingerprints of climate change

July “at least equalled if not surpassed the hottest month in recorded history”, and followed the hottest June ever, according to data from the World Meteorological Organization.

An analysis by World Weather Attribution (WWA), an international group of scientists who examine the possible influence of climate change on extreme weather events, found climate change made the scorching temperatures in July more likely to occur and more intense.

The WWA said climate change had made the heatwave in France and the Netherlands 10 times more likely, in Germany eight times more likely and in the UK, where the hot spell didn’t last as long, at least two times more likely.

The study also found temperatures during the July heatwave were likely between 1.5°C to 3°C hotter due to climate change.