Supply Chain and Transport

These cities are the best connected in the world — what makes them so special?

The skyline of Singapore's central business district is seen at dusk with PSA International port terminal in the foreground. The connectivity of cities is key.

Singapore takes the top spot in the World Economic Forum's Belt and Road Cities’ Connectivity Index, which measures the connectivity of 22 BRI cities Image: REUTERS

Yamin Xu
Lead for Greater China, Urban Transformation Centre, World Economic Forum
Jefferson Wang
Global Partner, Kearney
Yue Liu
Director, International Cooperation Department, China Centre for Urban Development
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Supply Chain and Transport

This article is part of: The Davos Agenda
  • COVID-19 disrupted global supply chains when they were needed the most
  • China’s Belt and Road Initiative (BRI) will enhance mobility of goods and people between cities, mitigating future disruptions
  • World Economic Forum’s new Six Connectivities Index measures the connectivity of 22 BRI cities

The COVID-19 pandemic brought with it a slew of knock-on crises for governments the world over. Among them was a critical shortage of personal protective equipment — the need for which had never been so enormous, so suddenly.

This shortage of masks, gloves and other lifesaving equipment was exacerbated by severe disruptions to the global supply chain.

Fortunately, by November 2020, thousands of trains loaded with life-saving equipment had arrived in Europe from China, carrying with them 60,000 tons of much-needed medical equipment — around eight million masks, gloves, eye protectors and other pieces of critical hardware.

Key to this logistical feat were the city shipping hubs of the Belt and Road Initiative (BRI), which mobilized quickly and effectively to deal with the global supply chain crisis.

Now, as the world adjusts to a volatile, uncertain, complex and ambiguous future — the ‘new normal’ — it is pertinent to ask: what role could the ‘new connectivity’ of cities play in addressing future challenges? Could the digital economy alter the form and depth of city connectivity?

Which BRI cities are leading the world in this effort, and what is the secret of their success?

Have you read?

Six Connectivities Index

To answer these questions, the World Economic Forum, together with Kearney and the China Centre for Urban Development, created the “Six Connectivities Index.”

The Index assesses and ranks all 22 cities in the BRI across six categories: policy coordination; infrastructure connectivity; unimpeded trade; financial integration; people-to-people ties; and information connection.

Singapore and Shanghai took the top two spots, followed by Beijing. But Chengdu, a city without the advantage of a coast, also scored well in connectivity. What made Singapore and Shanghai stand out against other coastal cities, and what is Chengdu doing right to flourish, despite lacking a coastal port?

Overall ranking of all 22 cities in the Forum's Belt and Road Cities’ Connectivity Index
Overall ranking of all 22 cities in the Forum's Belt and Road Cities’ Connectivity Index. Image: World Economic Forum


Singapore’s strong shipping capacity, sound cross-border trade and tariff policies, high openness to foreign capital, and forward-looking digital strategy mean it leads the world in the Six Connectivities.

Singapore’s government began to highlight the strategic importance of information technology and its vision for a Smart Nation initiative in 1992. Three decades later, it ranks first in Asia for its world-beating digital infrastructure.

Its Smart Nation 2025 programme aims to build island-wide infrastructure that would leverage data to aid the delivery of social service enhance livelihoods.


As one of the most populous cities in the world and a centre of international economy, finance, trade, shipping and technology innovation, Shanghai demonstrates strong overall connectivity.

Notably, China’s biggest city is now attempting to bolster its financial integration by improving foreign investment policies and building a cluster of global headquarters in the city. It is also improving its overall financial market system and resource allocation, strengthening the trade environment and building on the city’s existing status as a centre of international trade.

For these reasons, the Chinese megacity claimed the number two spot in the World Economic Forum’s Six Connectivities Index.


Despite being an inland city, Chengdu has been a hub for trade and cultural exchange between China and the West for centuries — if not millennia.

The most connected of any new first-tier cities in China, Chengdu now has a monumental impact on the wider BRI through the fast-developing Chengdu International Railway Port and the China–Europe Railway Express, which combined make it an important BRI hub.

As of October 2021, Chengdu International Railway Port, with its seven international rail lines and six international rail-sea intermodal lines, had run more than 15,000 train journeys, connecting 59 international cities with 20 Chinese cities. Chengdu’s success as a hub of rail transportation can be attributed to system innovation, regional clusters and strong industrial support.

In June 2021, Chengdu turbocharged its status as a global leader in connectivity when it finished construction of Chengdu Tianfu International Airport — the first in the world to seamlessly integrate high-speed trains directly into airport terminals. The airport — which is the second largest in China — now has the capacity to serve up to 90 million passengers and move two million tons of goods every year.

The opening of Tianfu International Airport
Tianfu International Airport in Chengdu is the first in the world to have high-speed train connectivity directly to its terminals. Image: Reuters

Enhancing connectivity

Increasing intercity connectivity is key to building on the existing foundations for high-quality BRI development. Cities in the BRI should integrate these five initiatives into their strategies to improve their connectivity:

  • Take advantage of existing strengths to reinforce and grow strong connections
  • Use geographical proximity and cultural similarity to build an area in which strengths can spread and be shared
  • Leverage digital transformation to build connectivity and develop digital infrastructure to facilitate digital asset sharing and common privacy policies
  • Strengthen city-to-city exchange to build partnerships, improve bilateral communication and promote all-round connectivity
  • Share best practices to enhance connectivity and build inter-city pathways according to each city’s strengths

There is no doubt that the world is entering a new and uncertain phase, brought on by the COVID-19 pandemic, rapid development and ground-breaking projects like the BRI. Cities in the BRI — and outside it — will undoubtedly have a fundamental role to play in leveraging the opportunities and mitigating the risks of this transition.

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