Geographies in Depth

Europe’s terror threat is real. But its cities are much safer than you think

A pedestrian carrying an umbrella walks past floral tributes to the victims of the recent attack at London Bridge and Borough Market, in central London, Britain June 6, 2017.  REUTERS/Toby Melville - RTX39894

While the threat of terrorism in Europe is genuine, it is dramatically lower than just about anywhere else in the world Image: REUTERS/Toby Melville

Robert Muggah
Co-founder, SecDev Group and Co-founder, Igarapé Institute
Our Impact
What's the World Economic Forum doing to accelerate action on Geographies in Depth?
The Big Picture
Explore and monitor how United Kingdom is affecting economies, industries and global issues
A hand holding a looking glass by a lake
Crowdsource Innovation
Get involved with our crowdsourced digital platform to deliver impact at scale
Stay up to date:

United Kingdom

The world has suffered an alarming increase in terrorism events over the past five years.

Equally dramatic is the spike in terrorism-related fatalities.

While the vast majority of terrorist-related killings are concentrated in the Middle East, North Africa and Central and South Asia, European Union (EU) member states are not immune. A string of high-profile and exceedingly violent attacks over the past few years have set Europeans on edge.

Global terrorism events:


Source: Carnegie University CREATE Lab with Igarapé Institute (GTD)

Genuine threat

While these attacks are devastating, EU countries experience an extremely small proportion of the world's terrorist events.

Notwithstanding the appalling attacks in London and Manchester, just 39 Europeans have died in 11 terrorist events thus far in 2017. This means that EU residents accounted for 2% of all attacks and 1% of all killings around the world in the first five months of this year.

This is not so say that the EU isn't facing a genuine threat of terrorism.

As residents of Athens, Brussels, Copenhagen, Hamburg, London, Manchester, Nice, Paris, Prague and Stockholm can attest, the past three years were exceedingly bloody.

Rising toll

While the terrorism data is patchy and error-prone, the best estimates are that 142 EU citizens were killed in 2016, with most of the victims from France (92), Belgium (32), and Germany (26).

The toll was even higher in 2015 when some 176 people were killed in terrorist attacks, most of them from France (161) and others from Denmark (2), Germany (5), Greece (1), Sweden (4) and the UK (1).

The recent spike in terrorist-related fatalities in the EU is striking in comparison to absolute numbers of violent deaths in previous years.

Between 2010 and 2014 there was a total of 37 reported terrorist killings in all EU countries combined, divided between France (10), Bulgaria (8), the UK (6), Greece (5), Germany (2), Czech Republic (2), Belgium (1), Estonia (1), Ireland (1) and Sweden (1).

Assuming steady EU population growth between 2010-2014, it is possible to determine an average annual death rate from terrorism.

Image: Igarapé Institute

Modern terrorist attacks are designed to lay siege to entire cities.

Predictably, billions of dollars are being spent to harden targets across the EU – from establishing no-go areas in cities to investing in blast-proof buildings.

But what is the real likelihood of a European being killed in a terrorist event?

The question is surprisingly tricky to answer, and depends largely on where he or she lives.

Even when adjusted for population sizes, the risks are clearly higher in Belgium, France, Germany and the UK, since this is where most events have occurred.

Not surprisingly, the overall prevalence rate of terrorism deaths in the EU varies from year to year.

In 2016, the terrorism death rate was 0.027 per 100,000 European residents, assuming a population of 510 million people.

In 2015, the rate was closer to 0.034 per 100,000 with a total population closer to 508 million.

Meanwhile, because the total number of people dying from terrorism was considerably lower, the average terrorism death rate between 2010-2014 was closer to 0.0018 per 100,000.

Other causes of death

How do these prevalence rates stack up against other major causes of death in the EU?

It turns out that heart disease, respiratory illness and cancer are several orders of magnitude more dangerous as threats to the health and welfare of Europeans than terrorism.

The region's average mortality rate from heart disease was approximately 132 per 100,000.

By a rough estimate, in 2016, Europeans were 4,888 times more likely to die from heart disease than a terrorist attack. Between 2010-2014, they were 73,333 times more likely to be felled by a diseased heart.

Suicide more deadly

So how do less frequent causes of mortality such as homicide, suicide and traffic accidents compare?

Again, using data from 2016, Europeans were 433 times more likely die of suicide, 218 times more likely to be killed in a car accident, and 32 times more likely to die of homicide than a terrorist incident.

And in 2010-2014, the odds were significantly skewed: EU residents were 6,500 times more likely to die of suicide, 4,377 times in the case of car accidents, and 472 times in the case of homicide.

Even with the heightened risk of terrorism, Europeans are much more at risk of dying of consumer products, in sporting accidents and even heat-waves than terrorism.

Using data released in 2016, the risk of dying from machine accidents, consuming toxic products and hot-water accidents is 39 times higher than from terrorism.

Dying in a bicycle, skiing or water-sports accident is 50 times more likely than being killed by a terrorist event.

And Europeans were 85 times more at risk of dying from a heat wave (during the hottest year). In 2010-2014 the odds were closer to 588, 761, and 1,272 to one respectively.

Lightning strikes

The odds start changing when it comes to extremely rare events.

Take the case of lightning strikes.

There were reportedly 26 European fatalities due to lightning strikes in 2016, though again, the data is extremely hard to verify.

Assuming this statistic is even close to being true, Europeans were 5.4 times more likely to be killed by terrorism than lightning in 2016.

Intriguingly, the odds were dramatically reversed between 2010-2014: Europeans were almost three times as likely to be killed by lightning then by terrorism.

Proportionate response

Terrorism is designed to spread fear and grind urban life to a halt.

The threat is real, but the response must be proportionate.

While there is an exceedingly low-probability of dying from terrorism in the EU, there is a 100% likelihood of more terrorist events.

Yet the risk in Europe is dramatically lower than just about anywhere else on the planet.

EU residents need to focus not just on mitigating terrorism through better intelligence, policing and community outreach, but on developing the tools to adapt, cope and bounce back when attacks periodically occur.

Don't miss any update on this topic

Create a free account and access your personalized content collection with our latest publications and analyses.

Sign up for free

License and Republishing

World Economic Forum articles may be republished in accordance with the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International Public License, and in accordance with our Terms of Use.

The views expressed in this article are those of the author alone and not the World Economic Forum.

Related topics:
Geographies in DepthGlobal RisksResilience, Peace and Security
World Economic Forum logo
Global Agenda

The Agenda Weekly

A weekly update of the most important issues driving the global agenda

Subscribe today

You can unsubscribe at any time using the link in our emails. For more details, review our privacy policy.

Asia-Pacific: How the region is prioritizing a green economy

Kanni Wignaraja and Debora Comini

June 10, 2024

About Us



Partners & Members

  • Join Us

Language Editions

Privacy Policy & Terms of Service

© 2024 World Economic Forum