• Global refugee numbers have risen from 42.5 million to 82.4 million people in the last decade.
  • COVID-19 has exacerbated dire living conditions for refugees trapped in long-term camps and left them vulnerable to disease.
  • Cryptocurrencies are enabling refugee camps to become micro-economies and empowering refugees in the process.

Refugees have been particularly hard hit during the COVID-19 pandemic – receiving less integration support and care. Are these vulnerable communities victims of politics, technological limitations or the lack of human will to act?

Despite the varied and extensive skill sets of refugees, their desire to work and contribute to local and larger economies, refugee economic integration and development has been slow and poorly supported.

The current situation, where refugees are housed in camps for decades at a time, is a sad indictment of a system that professes to respect human rights and show compassion to the less fortunate. It’s important to note that refugee camps were never designed to be permanent or semi-permanent residences.

The distinct lack of urgency shown when dealing with Persons of Concern (PoCs), and their economic development, highlights the disconnect between what people say they want to achieve and the reality on the ground.

Action not rhetoric

While the work and the mandate of the UN Refugee Agency (UNHCR) to care for the welfare of refugees is highly commendable, it appears to not be quite enough. The current approach does not effectively tackle the prevailing issue of integration. Whilst the UNHCR’s Global Compact on Refugees is an important framework, given the state of global conflicts we need more robust and radical actions to move away from containment in refugee camps and detention centres, which very often do not have external regulatory or malpractice supervisory bodies.

How is the World Economic Forum helping to improve humanitarian assistance?

Fragility and conflict in one country often has consequences around the world. This has been evidenced by the COVID-19 pandemic, numerous climate emergencies as well as the war in Ukraine and the ensuing refugee crisis. Regions affected by conflict are particularly vulnerable to the devastating impacts of these crises.

Urgent relief, supported by public-private partnerships, remains necessary in acute crises but it is essential those efforts are supplemented by long-term investments that help affected communities recover and rebuild.


The World Economic Forum is working with partners to identify and scale solutions in fragile parts of the world. The Humanitarian and Resilience Investing (HRI) Initiative seeks to unlock private capital so it flows into financially sustainable opportunities that benefit vulnerable communities. The Global Future Council on the New Agenda for Fragility and Resilience provides guidance to humanitarian and development actors as well as the private sector to improve support to local actors and facilitate responses that strengthen community resilience.

To learn more and get involved in initiatives that are improving millions of lives, contact us.

Unfortunately the Global Compact on Refugees appears to simply be a document of well-worded rhetoric that merely shifts responsibly and fails to outline concrete procedures and steps for the proper relocation or integration of refugees between member states. This lack of protection and duty towards some of the world’s most vulnerable people, particularly by Western countries who have the resources and necessary infrastructure, is nothing short of disappointing.

In the last decade, global forced displacement numbers have risen from 42.5 million to 82.4 million people. The UNHCR Global Trends Reports, between 2011-2020, show that the world is not succeeding at curtailing the conflicts and situations that cause these displacements. Therefore we should be creating workable, positive solutions. Humanity certainly does not lack the intelligence, the infrastructure or the financial resources – neither does the EU, who declare that their fundamental values are human dignity, equality, and respect for human rights.

Financial equality

Integration solutions for everyone – including refugees and PoCs – is not actually a far-fetched idea. For instance, blockchain technology and cryptocurrencies could be used to economically integrate refugees. We know that decentralized systems greatly minimise the possibility of corruption and human error. We know also that refugees are people who have skills, education and a sense of responsibility.

The Refugee Integration Organisation (RIO) is handing agency back to refugees in the Kakuma, Ampain and Krisan refugee camps, by giving them $1.50 daily in Unconditional Basic Income (UBI). This innovation takes the Celo cryptocurrency, housed on a decentralised anti-poverty system (ImpactMarket) and merged with USSD technology, to reach the most vulnerable refugees who may not have access to smartphones or the internet.

Delivered in local currencies and without the need to repay, long-term refugee camps are slowly becoming micro-economies or self-sustaining communities.

—Rya G. Kuewor.

The first of its kind in the world, and in a scale-down merging of technologies aided by Kotani Pay in Kenya, as of August 2021, over $71,000 has been distributed to over 2,500 refugees. Delivered in local currencies and without the need to repay, long-term refugee camps are slowly becoming micro-economies or self-sustaining communities. These refugees are able to buy essentials such as PPE, sanitary pads, medicine, and they can even save money.

What is the World Economic Forum doing about blockchain?

Blockchain is a technology that enables the decentralized and secure storage and transfer of information and value. The most well-known use case is cryptocurrencies, such as bitcoin, which allows for the electronic transfer of funds without banking networks. It can be a powerful tool for tracking goods, data, documentation and transactions – and could be relevant to numerous industries.

Blockchain entails significant trade-offs with respect to efficiency and scalability, as well as numerous risks increasingly coming to the attention of policy-makers. These include the use of cryptocurrency in ransomware attacks, fraud and illicit activity, and the energy consumption and environmental footprint of some blockchain networks. Consumer protection is also an important and often overlooked issue with cryptocurrency. So-called “stablecoins” and decentralized applications operating on blockchain technology pose risks to end-users of lost funds and to broader financial stability.

The Forum has driven impact to develop blockchain across industries and ensure it is utilized in a secure and responsible way by:

Contact us for more information on how to get involved.

In order to dispel the myth that refugees are unbankable, dependent, and unskilled, RIO leaves the management of its UBI programmes in the hands of its beneficiary refugees, acting mainly as an overseeing body. Everything from disbursements and beneficiary selection to community relations management is handled by refugees themselves. The programme is rapidly expanding to the Middle East and has a CSR arm in India, responding to migrant needs amidst the COVID-19 pandemic.

Imagine a world in which the UNHCR, governments, and organizations such as the UN, actively collaborated and stood up for the welfare of refugees. What could be achieved in a world where forced displacement did not mean long-term residency in refugee camps and relegation to detention centres?

No matter who we are or where we live, the state of refugees, displaced people and PoCs should concern us all, not because it affects us directly, but because it is an issue of humanity.