Full report
Published: 8 October 2019

Global Competitiveness Report 2019

Contributors and Acknowledgements


Professor Klaus Schwab
Executive Chairman
World Economic Forum

Centre for the New Economy and Society

Saadia Zahidi
Head, Member of Managing Board

Project Team

Thierry Geiger
Head, Research and Benchmarking Practice

Roberto Crotti
Insights Lead

Sophie Brown
Project Specialist

Guillaume Hingel
Insights Lead

We are immensely grateful to Professor Xavier Sala-i-Martín, Chief Advisor of The Global Competitiveness Report, for his longstanding guidance and support.

We are extremely grateful to Louisa Djeroud for her invaluable and thorough research assistance and to our Forum colleague Pierre Souter, Lead Data Scientist, Strategic Intelligence, for his generous support and coding assistance. The team also gratefully acknowledges our colleagues in the Centre for the New Economy and Society for their input and continuous support.

We thank Hope Steele and Mike Fisher for their excellent editing work. A special thank you to Neil Weinberg, the Global Competitiveness Report’s graphic designer of 10 years, for his friendship and professionalism, and we wish him all the best in his future endeavours. We thank illustrator Eleni Debo (elenidebo.com) for her artwork for this report.

We are also grateful to all the organizations from which we source the indicators that compose the Index. Without their tremendous efforts in collecting data, this work would not be possible. In particular, we thank the staff of the following organizations for providing privileged access to datasets, and for their help, guidance and feedback: Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation, International Air Transport Association, International Energy Agency, International Monetary Fund, International Telecommunications Union, International Trade Centre, International Trade Union Confederation, OECD, UNESCO and the World Bank.

Finally, we acknowledge and thank the organizations listed on the following pages as our valued Partner Institutes, which help administer the Executive Opinion Survey and advance the competitiveness agenda in their respective economies.

Partner Institutes

The World Economic Forum’s Centre for the New Economy and Society is pleased to acknowledge and thank the following organizations as its valued Partner Institutes, without which the realization of The Global Competitiveness Report 2019 would not have been feasible:

Institute for Contemporary Studies & Tirana Business University College
Artan Hoxha, President
Helton Cevi, Project Coordinator
Oltion Valisi, Researcher

Centre de Recherche en Economie Appliquée pour le Développement (CREAD)
Yacine Belarbi, Director
Khaled Menna, Director of Macroeconomics and Economic Integration

João Freitas, Country Manager
Luis Verdeja, Director

IAE Business School—Universidad Austral
Eduardo Luis Fracchia, Director of Academic Department of Economics
Martin Calveira, Research Assistant

Economy and Values Research Center
Manuk Hergnyan, Chairman
Sara Zakaryan, Research Associate
Sevak Hovhannisyan, Board Member and Senior Associate

Australian Industry Group
Colleen Dowling, Senior Research Analyst
Innes Willox, Chief Executive
Julie Toth, Chief Economist

Austrian Institute of Economic Research (WIFO)
Alexandros Charos
Christoph Badelt, Director
Michael Peneder

Azerbaijan Marketing Society
Ashraf Hajiyev, Coordinator
Fuad Aliyev, Consultant
Nigar Huseynzade, Chairman

Bahrain Economic Development Board
Khalid Al Rumaihi, Chief Executive
Nada Azmi, Director, Competitiveness Advocacy
Rana Abdel Haq, Executive, Competitiveness Advocacy

Centre for Policy Dialogue (CPD)
Fahmida Khatun, Executive Director
Mustafizur Rahman, Professor and Distinguished Fellow
Khondaker Golam Moazzem, Research Director

Sir Arthur Lewis Institute of Social and Economic Studies (SALISES)
University of West Indies (Cave Hill Campus, Barbados)
Don Marshall, Senior Fellow and Director
Jonathan Lashley, Senior Fellow

Institut de Recherche Empirique en Economie Politique (IREEP)
Léonard Wantchekon, Director
Stéphania Houngan, Research Associate

Bosnia and Herzegovina
MIT Center, School of Economics and Business, University of Sarajevo
Zlatko Lagumdzija, Professor
Jasmina Selimovic, Dean
Amra Kapo, Assistant Professor

Botswana National Productivity Centre
Letsogile Batsetswe, Research Consultant and Statistician
Phumzile Thobokwe, Manager, Information and Research Services Department
Teedzani Majaule, Acting Executive Director

Fundação Dom Cabral (FDC), Innovation and Entrepreneurship Center
Ana Burcharth, Associate Professor
Carlos Arruda, Professor and Director
Debora Rodrigues Dias, Research Assistant

Brunei Darussalam
Universiti Teknologi Brunei
Hajah Noor Maya binti Haji Md. Salleh, Acting Vice Chancellor
Ulaganathan Subramanian, Senior Assistant Professor
Wida Sustanty biniti Haji Suhaili, Assistant Professor

Center for Economic Development
Maria Prohaska, Director

Burkina Faso
Chambre de Commerce et d’Industrie du Burkina Faso (CCI-BF)
Issaka Kargougou, Directeur Général
Thimothée Dabire, Directeur des Etudes et de la Stratégie
Raïssa Zoungrana/Kormodo, Chef du Service Statistiques

Faculty of Economics and Management, Research Centre for Economic and Social Development (CURDES), University of Burundi
Arcade Ndoricimpa, Associate Professor,
CURDES Center Director
Léonidas Ndayizeye, Associate Professor and
Head of Department
Willy-Marcel Ndayitwayeko, Associate Professor and Dean

Nuppun Research and Consulting Co., Ltd
Eng Sokha, Researcher
Khin Pisey, Managing Director
Riddhy Vidou, Research Assistant

Comité de Compétitivité (Competitiveness Committee)
Justin Otsin, Expert Senior Survey
Lucien Sanzouango, Secrétaire Permanent (Permanent Secretary)

The Conference Board of Canada
Eleni Kachulis, Research Associate
Michael Burt, Executive Director

Cape Verde
Center for Applied Statistics and Econometrics Research – INOVE
Frantz Tavares, Chief Executive Officer
Jerónimo Freire, Project Manager
Júlio Delgado, Director

Centre d’Études et de Recherches sur la Gouvernance, les Industries Extractives et le Développement durable (CERGIED)
Gilbert Maoundonodji, Director
Mbairassem Simael, Researcher

School of Government, Universidad Adolfo Ibáñez
Eliana Nunez, Assistant
Ignacio Briones, Dean
Julio Guzman, A.T. Professor

National Planning Department – DNP
Gloria Alonso, Director
Juan Sebastian Robledo, Director, Innovation and Private Sector Development
Sara Patricia Rivera, Project Manager
Colombian Private Council on Competitiveness
Rosario Córdoba, President
Helena García, General Vice President
Santiago Matallana, Technical Vice President

Congo, Democratic Republic of
Congo-Invest Consulting (CIC)
Alphonse Mande, Project Coordinator
Marie-France Mpiry, Consultant
Teza Bila, Managing Director

Côte d’Ivoire
Chambre de Commerce et d’Industrie de Côte d’Ivoire
Kouakou Germain Yao, Directeur des Etudes et de l’Information Economique
Centre de Promotion des Investissements en Côte d’Ivoire (CEPICI)
Esmel Emmanuel Essis, Directeur Général, Secrétaire d’Etat auprès du Premier Ministre en charge de la Promotion de l’Investissement Privé
Ramatou Fall, Directeur de l’Environnement des Affaires
Simon Meledje, Chef de Service Planification et Suivi-Evaluation

National Competitiveness Council
Ivica Mudrinic, President
Jadranka Gable, Advisor
Kresimir Jurlin, Research Fellow

European University Cyprus
Bambos Papageorgiou, Project Coordinator
Bank of Cyprus
Kyriacos Antoniou, Liaison and Governance Officer
Michalis Persianis, Director for Corporate Affairs

Czech Republic
CMC Graduate School of Business
Tomáš Janča, Executive Director

Danish Technological Institute
Karsten Frøhlich Hougaard, Center Director, Center for Business and Policy Analysis
Stig Yding Sørensen, Senior Specialist, Center for Business and Policy Analysis

ESPAE Graduate School of Management, Escuela Superior Politécnica del Litoral (ESPOL)
Xavier Ordeñana, Dean
Sara Wong, Professor
Tania Tenesaca, Project Coordinator

The Egyptian Center for Economic Studies (ECES)
Abla Abdel Latif, Executive Director and Director of Research
Khaled Wahid, Head of Statistical Department

Estonian Institute of Economic Research (EKI)
Marje Josing, Director
Kiira Martens, Researcher
In collaboration with Tanel Rebane from Enterprise Estonia (EAS)

Business Eswatini
Musa Maseko, Head of Trade and Commerce Unit
Nancy Sibiya, Head of Legal Unit
Nozipho Msibi, Head of Human Capital Unit

African Institute of Management, Development and Governance
Adugna Girma, Manager
Tegegne Teka, Senior Expert and Team Leader

ETLA—The Research Institute of the Finnish Economy
Aki Kangasharju, Managing Director
Markku Lehmus, Head of Forecasting
Ville Kaitila, Researcher

Cabinet Regis & Associés
Regis Loussou Kiki, Coordonnateur de l’enquête

Gambia, The
The Gambia Economic and Social Development Research Institute (GESDRI)
Makaireh A. Njie, Director

TSU Center for Analysis and Forecasting
Vakhtang Charaia, Executive Director
Otar Anguridze, Head of the Board
Mamuka Tsereteli, Chief Economist

WHU—Otto Beisheim School of Management
Michael Frenkel, Professor, Chair of Macroeconomics and International Economics
Ralf Fendel, Professor, Chair of Monetary Economics

Association of Ghana Industries (AGI)
John Defor, Director for Policy & Research
Seth Twum-Akwaboah, Chief Executive Officer
Yaw Adu Gyamfi, President

SEV Hellenic Federation of Enterprises
Michael Mitsopoulos, Director, Business Environment and Regulatory Affairs
Thanasis Printsipas, Associate Advisor, Macroeconomic Analysis and European Policy

Juan Carlos Paiz, President of the Board of Directors
Juan Monge, Vice President of the Board of Directors
Juan Carlos Zapata, Chief Executive Officer

Confédération Patronale Des Entreprises De Guinée
Hadja Aïssatou Gnouma Traore, Présidente
Kerfalla Camara, 1er Vice-Président chargé de l’International
Mohamed Benogo Conde, Secrétaire Général

Group Croissance S.A.
Kesner F. Pharel, Chief Executive Officer
University Quisqueya

Hong Kong SAR
Hong Kong General Chamber of Commerce
Watson Chan, Deputy Chief Executive Officer (Policy & Business Development)
Wilson Chong, Senior Economist

KOPINT-TÁRKI Economic Research Ltd.
Erika Rozsas, Project Assistant
Éva Palócz, Chief Executive Officer
Peter Vakhal, Project Manager

Innovation Center Iceland
Elin Groa Karlsdottir, Project Manager Entrepreneur and SME Services
Karl Fridriksson, Managing Director of Entrepreneur and SME Services

LeadCap Knowledge Solutions Pvt. Ltd (LeadCap Ventures)
Sangeeth Varghese, Managing Director
Vidyadhar Prabhudesai, Director

Center for Industry, SME & Business Competition Studies, University of Trisakti
Ida Busnetti, Vice Director
Tulus Tambunan, Director

Iran, Islamic Republic of
Iran Chamber of Commerce, Industries, Mines and Agriculture, Deputy of Economic Affairs
Monireh Amirkhanloo, Interim Deputy Director for Economic Affairs
Mohammadreza Doostmohammadi, Project Manager
Farnaz Safdari, Research Associate

Ibec, representing Irish Business
Danny McCoy, Chief Executive Officer
Fergal O’Brien, Director of Policy and Public Affairs
Geraldine Anderson, Head of Research

Manufacturers Association of Israel (MAI)
Dan Catarivas, Foreign Trade & International Relations Director General
Ruby Ginel, Chief Executive Officer
Shraga Brosh, President

SDA Bocconi School of Management
Francesco A. Saviozzi, Associate Professor of Practice, Strategic and Entrepreneurial Management Department
Paola Dubini, Associate Professor, Bocconi University

Mona School of Business & Management (MSBM), The University of the West Indies, Mona
David McBean, Executive Director
Patricia Douce, Project Administrator, Professional Services Unit
William Lawrence, Director, Professional Services Unit

Keizai Doyukai (Japan Association of Corporate Executives)
Hironori Saito, General Manager for Policy Studies

Ministry of Planning and International Cooperation
Mary Kawar, Minister of Planning and International Cooperation
Zeina Toukan, Secretary General/Ministry of Planning and International Cooperation
Ghada Issa, Head of Competitiveness Division/Ministry of Planning and International Cooperation

Center for Strategic Initiatives
Adilov Ulan, Consultant
Aitur Azat, Project Manager
Sarkeyev Bakhytzhan, Director

Institute for Development Studies, University of Nairobi
Karuti Kanyinga, Research Professor and Director, Institute for Development Studies
Paul Kamau, Senior Research Fellow, Institute for Development Studies
Vincent Mugo, Project Assistant, Institute for Development Studies

Korea, Republic of
Korea Development Institute
Joonghae Suh, Executive Director, Economic Information and Education Center
Youngho Jung, Head, Public Opinion Analysis Unit
Jiyeon Park, Senior Research Associate, Public Opinion Analysis Unit

Kuwait University
Adel Al-Husainan, Committee Member
Fahad Al-Rashid, Committee Chairman
Sayer Al-Sayer, Committee Member

Kyrgyz Republic
Economic Policy Institute
Marat Tazabekov, Chairman

Enterprise & Development Consultants Co., Ltd

Stockholm School of Economics in Riga
Arnis Sauka, Head of the Centre for Sustainable Development

InfoPro, Research Department
Barrak Dbeiss, Project Manager
Joseph Haddad, Research Operations Manager

Private Sector Foundation of Lesotho
Kutloano Sello, President, Researcher
Manapo Mofolo, Researcher
Thabo Qhesi, Chief Executive Officer

Statistics Lithuania
Daina Saulienė, Specialist, Knowledge Economy and Special Surveys Statistics Division
Gediminas Samuolis, Head, Knowledge Economy and Special Surveys Statistics Division
Vilija Lapėnienė, former Director General

Luxembourg Chamber of Commerce
Jean-Baptiste Nivet, Research Analyst
Laure Demezet, Research Analyst
Marc Wagener, Chief Economist

Centre d’Etudes Economiques de l’Université d’Antananarivo
Mamy Raoul Ravelomanana, Président de l’Université d’Antananarivo et Enseignant – Chercheur du Centre d’Etudes Economiques
Tiarinisaina Olivier Ramiandrisoa, Enseignant – Chercheur du Centre d’Etudes Economiques
André Pierre Lazamanana, Enseignant – Chercheur du Centre d’Etudes Economiques

Malawi Confederation of Chambers of Commerce and Industry
Chancellor L. Kaferapanjira, Chief Executive Officer
Madalitso M. Kazembe, Director, Business Environment and Policy Advocacy
Hope Chavula, Head, Real Sector and Macroeconomic Policy

Malaysia Productivity Corporation (MPC)
Abdul Latif Abu Seman, Director General
Zainon Bakar, Director

Groupe de Recherche en Economie Appliquée et Théorique (GREAT)
Badiégué Diallo, Administrative and Financial Assistant
Massa Coulibaly, Executive Director
Moussa Coulibaly, Researcher

Institute for Competitiveness Malta
Adrian Said, Associate
Matthew Castillo, Associate

Mauritania Bicom-Service Commercial
Habib Sy, Administrative Director and Analyst
Modou Werzeg Fall, Financial Director
Ousmane Samb, Technical and Marketing Director

Economic Development Board
Ken Poonoosamy, Deputy Chief Executive Officer
Manaesha Fowdar, Senior Investment Executive

Mexican Institute for Competitiveness (IMCO)
Manuel J. Molano Ruiz, Deputy General Director
Romina Giron Palau, Communications Coordinator
César Ruiz Sosa, Researcher and Editor
Ministry of the Economy
Ernesto Acevedo Fernández, Undersecretary of Industry and Commerce
Jorge Arreola Cavazos, Head of the Competitiveness Unit

Academy of Economic Studies of Moldova (AESM)
Corneliu Gutu, Director
Grigore Belostecinic, Rector
Lidia Gutu

Open Society Forum (OSF)
Erdenejargal Perenlei, Executive Director
Oyunbadam Davaakhuu, Manager of Economic Policy Program

Institute for Strategic Studies and Prognoses (ISSP)
Jadranka Kaludjerovic, Program Director
Maja Drakic Grgur, Project Manager
Veselin Vukotic, President

Confédération Générale des Entreprises du Maroc (CGEM)
Salaheddine Mezouar, President
Si Mohamed Elkhatib, Project Head, Commission Climat des Affaires et Partenariat

EconPolicy Research Group, Lda.
Mwikali Kieti, Project Coordinator
Peter Coughlin, Director

Institute for Public Policy Research (IPPR)
Graham Hopwood, Executive Director
Ndapunikwa Fikameni, Research Associate
Salmi Shigwedha, Research Associate

Competitiveness and Development Institute (CODE)
Ramesh Chandra Chitrakar, Professor, Country Coordinator and Team Leader
Menaka Shrestha, Team Member

Amsterdam Centre for Business Innovation, Amsterdam Business School, University of Amsterdam
Henk W. Volberda, Director and Professor

New Zealand
Kathryn Asare, Project Manager
Kirk Hope, Chief Executive

Nigerian Economic Summit Group (NESG)
Olajire Onatade-Abati, Research Economist
Olaoye Jaiyeola, Chief Executive Officer
Olusegun Omisakin, Head of Research and Publication

North Macedonia
Economic Chamber of North-West Macedonia
Drilon Iseni, Executive Director
Milaim Ameti, Operational Manager
Mersim Memedi, Research Assistant

National Competitiveness Office
Bader Shaikhan Al Abdali, Head of international Indexes and Simulation Programs
Buthaina Hilal Al-Saadi, Statistician
Nadia Al Balushi, Head of International Cooperation and Media

Mishal Pakistan
Amir Jahangir, Chief Executive Officer
Parisey Tariq, Program Manager
Puruesh Chaudhary, Director of Content

Fundación Paraguaya de Cooperación y Desarrollo
Martin Burt, Founder and Chief Executive Officer
Luis Fernando Sanabria, Chief Operating Officer
Fernando Sanabria, Institutional Management Assistant

Centro de Desarrollo Industrial (CDI), Sociedad Nacional de Industrias
Luis Tenorio, Executive Director
Maria Elena Baraybar, Project Assistant
Benoni Sanchez, System Administrator

Makati Business Club (MBC)
Coco Alcuaz, Executive Director
Edgar O. Chua, Chairman
Elizabeth A. Bautista, Programs Officer

Department of Economic Analysis, National Bank of Poland
Piotr Boguszewski, Economic Advisor
Piotr Szpunar, Director

PROFORUM, Associação para o Desenvolvimento da Engenharia
Ilídio António de Ayala Serôdio, President of the Board of Directors
Helena Roquette, Secretary of the President
Raquel Magalhaes, Secretary General of PROFORUM
Fórum de Administradores de Empresas (FAE)
Paula Carmona, President
David Braga Malta, Member
Susana Lourenco, Executive Assistant

Qatari Businessmen Association (QBA)
Issa Abdull Salam Abu Issa, Secretary-General
Sarah Abdallah, Deputy General Manager
Social and Economic Survey Research Institute (SESRI)
Hassan Al Sayed, Director
Raymond Carasig, Senior Survey Support Specialist

ADAF (Association of Women Entrepreneurship Development)
Cornelia Rotaru, President
Mariana Nicolae, Vice-President
Gela Rotaru, Secretary
The Chamber of Commerce and Industry of Romania
Cristina Mihai, Director, Internal Relations and ICC Romania

Russian Federation
Eurasia Competitiveness Institute (ECI)
Alexey Prazdnichnykh, Managing Director
Nikita Popov, Project Associate

Rwanda Development Board
Jean Paul Baruhura, Tracking and Reporting Specialist
Kennedy Kalisa, Strategy Analyst
Louise Kanyonga, Head of Strategy and Competitiveness Department
Lucia Perez Villar, Competitiveness Analyst

Saudi Arabia
Alfaisal University
Mohammed Kafaji, Director of Quality Assurance and Accreditation
National Competitiveness Center (NCC)
Eiman Habbas Al-Mutairi, CEO of the National Competitiveness Centre
Waleed Al-Rudaian, Execution Director
Salman Al-Tukhaifi, Analytical Director
Abdulrahman Al-Ghamdi, Specialist Research and Reporting

Centre de Recherches Economiques Appliquées (CREA), Université Cheikh Anta Diop of Dakar
Babacar Sène, Directeur du Centre de Recherches Economiques Appliquées, Coordonnateur de l’enquête
Mamadou Marone, Superviseur des enquêteurs, Chercheur au CREA

Foundation for the Advancement of Economics (FREN)
Aleksandar Radivojevic, Project Coordinator
Jelena Zarkovic Rakic, Director
Svetozar Tanaskovic, Researcher

Better Life Foundation
Selma Francis-Belle, Vice Chairman
Anita Stravens, Administrator
Tira Simeon, Administrator

Singapore Economic Development Board
Cheng Wai San, Director, Research and Statistics Unit
Teo Xinyu, Executive Officer, Research and Statistics Unit

Slovak Republic
Business Alliance of Slovakia (PAS)
Peter Serina, Executive Director
Peter Golias, Member of the Board
Robert Kicina, Member of the Board

Institute for Economic Research
Peter Stanovnik, Professor
Sonja Uršič, Senior Research Assistant
University of Ljubljana, Faculty of Economics
Mateja Drnovšek, Full Professor

South Africa
Business Leadership South Africa
Bonang Mohale, Chief Executive Officer
Tebele Makhetha, Head of Policy and Legislation
Business Unity South Africa
Olivier Serrao, Executive Director, Economic and Trade Policy
Tyson Thamsanqa Sibanda, Co-Ordinator, Economic and Trade Policy

IESE Business School, International Center for Competitiveness
Pascual Berrone, Professor
María Luisa Blázquez, Research Associate

Sri Lanka
Institute of Policy Studies of Sri Lanka (IPS)
Dushni Weerakoon, Executive Director
Kithmina Hewage, Research Officer

Ratio – Näringslivets forskningsinstitut
Ida Arnstedt, Operational Controller
Nils Karlson, Chief Executive Officer
Johanna Grönbäck, Head of Communications

University of St. Gallen, Executive School of Management, Technology and Law (ES-HSG)
Tobias Trütsch, Head of Economics Division

Taiwan, China
National Development Council
Cheng-Mount Cheng, Deputy Minister
Ming-Huei Wu, Director, Economic Development Department
Yu-Ju Huang, Specialist, Economic Development Department

Center of Sociological Research “Zerkalo”
Kahramon Bakoev, Director
Gulchehra Tabarova, Head of Data Collection Department
Zerkalo Central Asia, LLC – a member of Z-Analytics Group
Gulnora Beknazarova, Director

Donald Mmari, Executive Director
Lucas Katera, Director of Commissioned Works
Cornel Jahari, Researcher

Chulalongkorn Business School, Chulalongkorn University
Kanyarat Sanoran, Assistant Dean
Wilert Puriwat, Dean

Trinidad and Tobago
Arthur Lok Jack Global School of Business, The University of the West Indies, St. Augustine
Balraj Kistow, Lecturer and Programme Director
Nirmala Maharaj, Director, Internationalisation and Institutional Relations Centre
Sade Lazzar, Officer, Internationalisation and Institutional Relations Officer

Institut Arabe des Chefs d’Entreprises
Majdi Hassen, Executive Counsellor
Mayssa Louati, Head of Data Unit
Taieb Bayahi, President

TUSIAD Sabanci University Competitiveness Forum
Coskun Yagiz Ozyol, Project Specialist
Izak Atiyas, Director
Sezen Uğurlu Sum, Project Specialist

Kabano Research and Development Centre (KRDC)
Robert Apunyo, Program Manager
Delius Asiimwe, Executive Director
Dianah Nannono, Research Associate

CASE Ukraine, Center for Social and Economic Research
Dmytro Boyarchuk, Executive Director
Vladimir Dubrovskiy, Leading Economist

United Arab Emirates
Federal Competitiveness and Statistics Authority
Abdulla Nasser Lootah, Director General
Competitiveness Office of Abu Dhabi
Rahsed AbdulKarim Al Blooshi, Undersecretary of the Department of Economic Development-Abu Dhabi

Universidad ORT Uruguay
Bruno Gili, Professor
Isidoro Hodara, Professor

CONAPRI—The Venezuelan Council for Investment Promotion
Juan Cabral, Executive Director
Litsay Guerrero, Economic Affairs and Investor Services Manager
Luis Mariano Rodriguez Rojas, Legal Affairs Manager

Viet Nam
Ho Chi Minh Institute for Development Studies (HIDS)
Tran Anh Tuan, Acting President
Du Phuoc Tan, Head of Urban Management Studies Department
Trieu Thanh Son, Deputy Head of Research Management and Cooperation Department

Yemeni Business Club (YBC)
Ejlal Al-Wadei, Projects Coordinator
Fathi Abdulwasa Hayel, Chairman
Ghadeer Al-Maqhafi, Executive Manager

Institute of Economic and Social Research (INESOR), University of Zambia
Grayson Koyi, Research Fellow
Jolly Kamwanga, Senior Research Fellow and Director
Patricia Funjika, Research Fellow and Project Coordinator

Fulham Economics, Harare
A. M. Hawkins, Chairman
Bolivia, Costa Rica, Dominican Republic, El Salvador, Honduras, Nicaragua, Panama
INCAE Business School, Latin American Center for Competitiveness and Sustainable Development (CLACDS)
Enrique Bolaños, President
Octavio Martínez, Director
Ronald Arce, Researcher

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