Climate Indicators

Why wildlife is so essential to spreading plants' seeds

Puffins communicating, Saltee Islands, Ireland.

Birds in particular, are essential for seed dispersal. Image: Wynand van Poortvliet/Unsplash

Evan Fricke
Faculty Fellow in Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Rice University
Alejandro Ordonez
Assistant Professor of Global Change Biology, Aarhus University
Haldre Rogers
Associate Professor of Ecology, Evolution and Organismal Biology, Iowa State University
Jens-Christian Svenning
Professor of ecology, Aarhus University
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Seedlings sprouting from elephant dung in Malaysia.
Elephant dung serves as fertilizer. Image: Ahimsa Campos Arceiz CC, BY-ND

Areas with with brighter red coloration have lost more climate-tracking seed dispersal function.
Many plants can't survive if certain species go extinct. Image: Fricke et al., 2022, CC BY-ND
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Related topics:
Climate IndicatorsSDG 13: Climate ActionBiodiversitySDG 15: Life on Land
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