How 'frugal design' innovations have helped communities during COVID-19

Frugal design is the low cost and resourceful way to produce medical equipment for low-income areas. Image: Reuters

Theresa Mkandawire
Associate Professor of Civil Engineering, University of Malawi
Rebecca Richards-Kortum
Professor of Bioengineering, Rice University
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Health care workers around the world turned to 3D-printed face shields in the early months of the pandemic
3D-printed face shields were an essential part of the early COVID-19 response. Image: ulia Jenjezwa, Rice 360° Institute for Global Health
A medical equipment ‘graveyard’ in Malawi.
Medical equipment was repurposed during COVID-19. Image: Rice 360° Institute for Global Health
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