- COVID-19 pandemic has brought into sharp relief the EU's ambitious aim to achieve net-zero emissions by 2050.
- We can learn lessons from the groundbreaking vaccine programmes and the power of the human spirit to protect one another.
- Innovation alone cannot solve climate change – we must also harness the collective will of humanity.
This is one of a series of articles written by Young Global Leaders with action-oriented ideas to improve the state of the world by 2030.
Both the COVID-19 pandemic and global warming are about survival, and are health crises at their core. But that is not their only common feature. We can also overcome them in a similar way – by working with, rather than against, our human nature.
The alpha and omega of climate policy is reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions: the European Union aims to cut them by 55% by 2030, and to achieve net-zero emissions by 2050. Our first reaction to these ambitious goals is that we ought to eat less meat, fly less often, reuse what we use, and question our assumption that gross domestic product must increase constantly. From this perspective, cutting GHG emissions seemingly entails a reduction of our current living standards.
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Likewise, we initially tackled COVID-19 by curtailing social life, closing shops and businesses, and reducing civil liberties. That meant fewer contacts and fewer contracts. But it soon became clear that these measures were no more than a temporary quick fix. In our liberal Western societies, it is – fortunately – impossible to keep people locked up at home.
The fact that almost all countries have struggled through a second or even third wave of infection shows that a strategy of “less” cannot bring a durable victory over the pandemic. Humans are not built for “less”. Although people are often wrongly portrayed as being mere profit maximizers, we are without doubt born competitors. We love wheeling and dealing and making big plans to leave behind a better world for our children. But, as Aristotle observed, we are also social animals par excellence.
Any climate change policy that denies or ignores these fundamental traits is doomed to fail. After all, what initially slowed down the coronavirus was not brutal rule enforcement, but our sociability: the collective acknowledgement that every individual effort mattered and our willingness to shield others from harm by keeping our distance.
But what the pandemic showed, above all, was the power of human curiosity, which enabled us to develop COVID-19 vaccines in less than a year. The very concept of a vaccine – injecting a weakened version of an actual virus into someone’s bloodstream – is as daring as it is ingenious. Ever since Edward Jenner developed the first vaccine against smallpox in 1796, scientists have constantly modified and improved the technique. By the end of the 20th century, vaccines were protecting billions from myriad diseases, including polio, diphtheria, yellow fever, typhoid fever, tuberculosis, hepatitis, rabies, and tetanus. Partly as a result, average life expectancy in Europe has increased from under 40 years in the late 1800s to about 80 today.
In the 21st century, this combination of incremental improvement and innovative breakthroughs resulted in the new mRNA technology that makes vaccine production more stable, and therefore faster and more predictable. Because of mRNA platforms, some COVID-19 vaccines can be adapted to coronavirus mutations almost overnight.
We should tackle the climate crisis in the same way. The strategy we need is not “less”; it is “more, but different”. That means reorganizing our economy and investing in new technologies, while recognizing that there is no silver bullet or miracle solution. Science and entrepreneurship are piecemeal: two steps forward, one step back, and then another two sideways before we progress again.
Moreover, human creativity cross-pollinates economic activity. Today, electric vehicles still emit a significant amount of carbon dioxide indirectly. But in another decade or so, EVs will be close to zero-emission, and we will also fly carbon-free.
Innovation and competition are the flywheels that drive knowledge and innovation. The wind turbines of the 1980s and 1990s had steel rotor blades with a diameter of 17 metres and produced an average of 75 kilowatt-hours of electricity (see figure). Today’s turbines have carbon rotor blades with an average diameter of 126 metres – bigger than an Airbus A380 – and produce 7,500 kilowatt-hours on average. That represents a 100-fold increase in production capacity in a little over 20 years.
Battery capacity has increased rapidly, too. The nickel-iron batteries of the 1970s were still pretty much the same as those Henry Ford used for his Model T. They pale in comparison to the lithium-ion batteries that today power whole cities such as Zhangbei, China. These leaps in innovation often do not appear fundamental to the public, but they constitute the very essence of human progress.
Our impending victory over COVID-19 shows the way forward for limiting global warming. We will conquer the virus by focusing on a common goal, cooperating, and allowing people the freedom to innovate. Furthermore, governments worldwide have recognized when to step in to encourage innovation and when to take a step back.
Today, many countries have developed post-crisis recovery plans. Governments should use stimulus spending to turbocharge private investments and reduce private risk. Every climate-friendly project – whether new hydrogen technology, trains, or offshore wind farms – both embodies previous innovations and drives future breakthroughs. The result is a virtuous cycle of change, with each revolution bringing into being a world that is a little different, a little more efficient, and a little better.
We will overcome the pandemic by channeling our human nature. And we will overcome the threat of climate change the same way. By adding every individual contribution to the collective effort, we can and will make a huge difference. That is how humanity moves forward together and mitigates global threats.
What’s the World Economic Forum doing about climate change?
Climate change poses an urgent threat demanding decisive action. Communities around the world are already experiencing increased climate impacts, from droughts to floods to rising seas. The World Economic Forum's Global Risks Report continues to rank these environmental threats at the top of the list.
To limit global temperature rise to well below 2°C and as close as possible to 1.5°C above pre-industrial levels, it is essential that businesses, policy-makers, and civil society advance comprehensive near- and long-term climate actions in line with the goals of the Paris Agreement on climate change.
The World Economic Forum's Climate Initiative supports the scaling and acceleration of global climate action through public and private-sector collaboration. The Initiative works across several workstreams to develop and implement inclusive and ambitious solutions.
This includes the Alliance of CEO Climate Leaders, a global network of business leaders from various industries developing cost-effective solutions to transitioning to a low-carbon, climate-resilient economy. CEOs use their position and influence with policy-makers and corporate partners to accelerate the transition and realize the economic benefits of delivering a safer climate.
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This decade the world will likely witness more social, economic and environmental changes than over the last century. While the COVID-19 pandemic called for immediate reforms, the mainstreaming of stakeholder capitalism, the impacts of climate change, the escalation of next-generation technologies, and the empowerment of citizenship will pave the way for a ‘resetting’ of the global economy and social practices.
This article series presents pioneering, forward-looking, and action-oriented ideas that should be adopted up to 2030 to improve the state of the world. The WEF invited a group of individuals who have been selected as Young Global Leaders (YGLs) in the course of their careers. Authors include heads of government, business leaders and scientists, prominent intellectuals or civil society leaders.
On an annual basis and since 2004, the World Economic Forum identifies the world’s most promising leaders under the age of 40 — people driving innovation for positive change across civil society, arts, culture, government and business. This series, an initiative of the Forum of Young Global Leaders of the World Economic Forum, harnesses the expertise and experience of this group of leaders.
For additional information on the article series, please contact Rodrigo Tavares (curator).